In a general sense, justice may be defined as fairness in the punishment of wrong deeds and in the protection of rights. It is the quality of righteousness, equitableness, and a good moral principle. Governments, institutions, individuals, international organizations, and individuals have a standard reference for what is considered just and unjust. These judgments are based on a formulated paradigm of political and moral values. Even though the frameworks of justice may differ across nations and cultures, they have continually maintained a common ground that allows every human being to accept the definitions of good and bad, right and wrong, just and unjust. All great nations embody the similar pivotal values and principles that reflect their capacity to seek perfection in equal rights, opportunities, and living conditions.
Equality of rights implies a concerted effort by nations to respect and uphold the civil and political rights, as well as fundamental freedoms of all individuals. Justice also concerns elimination of all aspects of arbitrary treatment and discrimination of individuals based on gender, color, sex, race, language, religion, birth, social origin, or other status. These presentations reflect the most important forms of equality. For instance, United Nations has formulated policies that ensure the member states promote gender equality initiatives and increase the position of women in power. These policies have seen women engage in administrative positions, such as the Judiciary as judges and magistrates, as well as in politics and the corporate world.
Social justice entails equality of opportunities, which concerns the need for countries to stabilize their economic, political, and social environment that enable individuals to contribute to the society and the economy in exploiting their full potential. Through this equality, governments and societies allow individuals to develop their talents and pursue their aspirations within legal and moral limits, thereby fostering peaceful coexistence with others. This equality has been associated with the application of public policies of education and health that offset the inequalities among individuals, for instance from the different social background. A case scenario is the initiative of the World Health Organization (WHO) on a joint action of European countries to meet the health need of migrants and refugees. Such initiatives include diagnosing and treatment of noncommunicable and infectious diseases.
Justice also entails equity in living conditions for households and individuals that reflect the acceptable levels of wealth, income, and other life aspects in the society. The distribution of income, for instance, at the local and national are is based on categories such as location, socioeconomic status, and profession in the society. The availability of income in most contemporary societies enables individuals and households have a free will in making a prudent financial choice and ease of access to amenities. Even though variations exist in socioeconomic policies in different countries, most policies are inclined towards fair distribution of resources. For instance, policies such as sustainable development goal (SDGs) by the UN have provided a framework that holds member states into account for improving the living conditions and expanding space for meaningful employment and work.
Overall, justice in the modern era still upholds the foundational principles of good conduct and equity that span the judicial, political, economic, and social realms. More strides have been made towards ensuring that issues such as gender inequality or social injustices are eradicated. For instance, more women have sought elective positions in various levels of government all over the world. Still, many more women have been appointed to key positions in the corporate world. Further, the application of justice has seen countries implement prudent policies that guard against all individuals and households, be they immigrants, refugees, or natives. With these developments, a bright future for countries and individuals is imminent.
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