History of photography, types of photography, photography techniques

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History of photography, types of photography, photography techniques

Category: Research Paper

Subcategory: Computer Science

Level: High School

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History of photography, types of photography, photography techniques
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Abstract
The word photography was coined from two Greek words: photo meaning light, and graph meaning drawing. Drawing using the light can be used to describe photography. When making photographs, light or another form of radiant energy like X-rays is used to create or record an image of an object on a light-sensitive surface. The early forms of photographs were called sun pictures because sunlight was used to create the image. As mentioned before, mankind has been making images at least since the cave paintings dating back to 20,000 years ago. The invention of photography has allowed for a realistic image that would have taken a skilled artist hours or even days to draw to be recorded in exact detail within fractions of a second CITATION Iva10 l 1033 (Tolmachev, 2010).
The History of Photography
The word photography was coined from two Greek words: photo meaning light and graph meaning drawing. Drawing using the light can be used to describe photography. When making photographs, light or another form of radiant energy like X-rays is used to create or record an image of an object on a light-sensitive surface. The early forms of photographs were called sun pictures because sunlight was used to create the image. As mentioned before, mankind has been making images at least since the cave paintings dating back to 20,000 years ago. The invention of photography has allowed for a realistic image that would have taken a skilled artist hours or even days to draw to be recorded in exact detail within fractions of a secondCITATION His15 l 1033 (School Curriculum in Photography, 2015).
Photography has been a part of the human race since the pre-historic times. Man was known to make drawings on stone walls by using a pinhole in a totally sealed cave and leaving a small hole to let light in. The light was projected against a wall and the image created was traced onto a stone wall. The modern type of photography was invented in the 1830’s and it became publicly recognized ten years after its invention. In the world today, photography is the largest and fastest growing hobby with the hardware i.e. cameras used creating an industry worth billions of dollars. It has also emerged as a powerful means of communication and a means of visual expression that covers human life in many ways. Photography, for instance, has become a popular means of crystallizing memories. Of the billions of photographs recorded daily in the world today, most of them are used to document personal events such as vacations, birthdays and weddings.
One of the earliest ways of controlling light in photography is Camera Obscura. It was first detailed in written form by artist and inventor Leonardo Da Vinci. It literally means “darkened room”. A room was completely sealed from light except for a very small hole on one wall. An image of an object from the surrounding of the camera was projected upside down and reversed left-to-right, then projected on a wall or white screen placed opposite the opening. The camera obscura was later reduced in size until it became a small portable box. Equipped with lenses placed at a 45-degree angle to each other, the reflected image could be turned back upwards and focused on a screen. However, there was still no way of capturing the images directly and permanently.
There were developments and improvements over time by various scientists to make the images of the camera permanent. Between the 1840’s and the early 19th century, various scientists developed the Niepce, Daguerre, Talbot, and Archer. These were new ways of recording the images captured by their cameras permanently.
In 1871, photography entered a new era when an amateur English photographer called R.L. Maddox developed a successful dry plate that retained its sensitivity to light even after drying. Other scientists followed his lead and within a short time, fast, reliable dry plates and much more convenient plates were available at affordable costs. The dry plate is considered the turning point in photography.
An American citizen by the name George Eastman developed the flexible roll film in 1889 with the first Kodak camera. He gave the slogan “You push the button and we do the rest”. This marked the beginning of mass-market photography.In 1930, the flash bulbs were introduced. Experiments with gas discharge flash tubes at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology led to the development of the electronic flash that could produce images made at exposures as brief as 1/10,000 second. Later, the electronic flash units became so miniature that they could be carried in pockets compared to the beginning when they required expensive and cumbersome equipment to be carried CITATION Jef14 l 1033 (Meyer, 2014).
By 1947, Edwin H. Land, an American, had developed the instant or self-processing Polaroid Land camera. Kodachrome technology that was popular for its sharpness and rich color was later introduced in the camera in 1963 to enable it produces color pictures.
In 1988, the world’s first digital camera was released by Fuji. It was the DS-1P. This was the first true digital camera that recorded images as a recorded file. It had a 16MB internal memory card that stored the images. Since then there have been various improvements and inventions in the digital camera that have increased the images to near-human or even better quality images.
Types of photography
There are many types of photography. Some of the fundamental types include the following:
Aerial: This is a type of photography where images are taken from a plane, balloon, and other airborne devices or a higher ground.
Amateur: This is photography that is practiced by non-professionals.
Animal, pet: This is photography involving pets and their relationships with humans. The human content is also as important as the pets’.
Architecture, real estate: This is the art of making property look attractive.
Artistic: Photography whose goal is creative composition.
Digiscoping: Photography where pictures are taken through a telescope or binoculars.
Medical: This is a type of photography that is specialized for clinical purposes.
Nature: Photography that involves plants, animals, landscapes, etc.
Sports: A type of photography that is a specialized art for shooting people engaged in sports.
Stock: These are photographs taken for distribution to other people for their personal uses.
Travel: This is a type of photography used to illustrate travel literature, locations, etc.
Urban/Industrial: A type of photography that emphasizes urban environments.
Photography Techniques
Photographic composition
It is the pleasing placement and arrangement of subject matter elements within the picture area. A camera sees and records a small part of the environment that it focuses. It therefore depends on the ability and skill of the photographer to decide what to put in the picture to come up with a picture that captures the viewer’s attention, make a clear statement and please the eye. This makes a good photographic composition CITATION Med15 l 1033 (MediaCollege.com, 2015).
Centre of Interest
Each picture should cover on one principal idea or center of interest to which the viewer’s eye will be attracted to. The secondary elements within the picture must emphasize and focus the attention to the principal feature. A picture with more than one principal feature diverts the attention from the principal feature and, therefore, becomes puzzling to the viewer. A picture with a single point of interest will be quickly understood by the viewer.
Subject Placement
A good composition is obtained by placing the center of interest at the geometrical center. The picture area should be divided into thirds, vertically and horizontally and locating the center of interest at the intersections of the imaginary lines to create a balance of the impression in the picture.
Simplicity
Simplicity is key to most good pictures. When a picture is simple and direct, it will be clear and the resulting statement.
Viewpoint and camera angle
This is an important factor in a good composition. Positioning the object within the viewfinder frame and changing the camera angle are a simple way of controlling composition. Changing the angle and using a different viewpoint can add drama and excitement or even bring out an unusual aspect of the object.
Balance
The balance in photographic composition can be used to make a picture look harmonious. Each element in a picture has a value or respect that determines the overall balance of the picture. When the elements are arranged properly, they give an impression of balance in the picture.
References
BIBLIOGRAPHY l 1033 MediaCollege.com. (2015, May 21). Types of Photography. Retrieved from MediaCollege.com: http://www.mediacollege.com/photography/types/
Meyer, J. (2014, February 7). 77 Photography Techniques, Tips and Tricks for Taking Pictures of Anything. Retrieved from Digital Camera World: http://www.digitalcameraworld.com/2014/02/07/77-photography-techniques-tips-and-tricks-for-taking-pictures-of-anything/
School Curriculum in Photography. (2015, May 21). History- What is Photography? Retrieved from School Curriculum in Photography: http://scphoto.com/html/history.html
Tolmachev, I. (2010, March 15). A Hostory of Photography Part 1: The Beginning. Retrieved from Photo & Video: http://photography.tutsplus.com/articles/a-history-of-photography-part-1-the-beginning–photo-1908