Famous Creative Thinkers Presentation
Famous Creative Thinkers Presentation
BIOGRAPHY OF JAMES HAL CONE
James Hal Cone was born on August 5, 1938 in Fordyce, Arkansas. He attended local schools within and neighborhood of Arkansas, then received a Bachelor of Arts degree from philander smith college in 1958. He then opened his theology scoop by attending Garrett Theological Seminary, where he received a B.D, degree in Wisconsin in 1961. He proceeded to Northwestern University, where he earned an M. A. and Ph.D. degrees in 1963 and 1965 respectively. He served in different capacities after college education; he taught religion in a number of colleges beginning at Philander Smith College, Adrian College and at Union Theological Seminary in York City in 1970 where he was awarded the distinguished Charles A. Briggs, Chair in Theology. He lectured through the world and was a visiting professor at several universities and colleges. Cone’s study and contributions in theology earned him the American Achievement Award in Religion category in 1992.
The period around 1960s was a great period of racial and social turmoil in the United States and other democracies. The civil rights movement and passive resistance in early and mid-1960s led by then Reverend Martin Luther King Jnr, had gained momentum. “Black Power” was now the clarion call on this more radical segment and at this at time was the best time for black theologians like Cone to articulate a new revolution of theology that could gear the Black Power Movement. The major attempt that was done to integrate Black power with theology was the book Theology and Black Power (1969) by James Cone. He used a rhetorical style to pass his massage in this book to demonstrate discrimination and injustice to Blacks. But this failed to win cone friends among the Whites which made him be a target of the barrage of White people criticism.
In his subsequent materials, he constantly maintains the use of rhetoric statements and symbols, but later he admitted to stop using such extreme language, however, his stand and condemnation of oppression and racism was still strong as ever. The publication of his book in 1969 accelerated his influence and played a core role in catalyzing the emergence of the liberation of theologies across the developing countries. He was a very effective spokesperson for the ecumenical Association of Third World Countries that addressed political and social oppression and also economic misery.
Cone managed to fight for the oppressed using his position as a Christian leader, an academician and as literature writer. These gave him a base to communicate and his message, reach well to the audience, (Damico, 2015). Through his education and ministry, he gained great publicity that made him become a center of attraction from both public and government. Cone had realized that he possed popularity advantage and used it to fight for oppressed through his books and speech he presented on different occasions. The power of knowledge and his background was instrumental on his approach of expressing his ideologies. His critical analysis on image of White and Black Christianity in America and explicit on oppression of blacks and minorities played an important role in expanding and contribution of other affirming Christian theologies like black woman (“womanize”), Latina woman (“mujerista”) and feminist liberation.
However, despite his brilliant articulation “black theology”, James Cone has received criticism on the accuracy of theological claims which is still debated till now. He was regarded as unapologetic Christian, that he attacked several churches in the United States on grounds of the liberation of oppressed without realizing that he had specific targets that oppressed or defaulted the concept of Christianity. According to Rev. James Ellis III in his critique essay on Cone’s theology, Cone dwell much on the black affair by regarding them more superior than the whites, and that he trace Christ as African. Ellis also points out the misconception of addressing political, social and religion practice oppression. He mixed these vices without noting that not all these factors were to be blamed at the same time and same magnitude.
Cone’s theology works are very elemental even up to date in interpretation and self-actualization in the black Christian context and a more general perception. He dedicated his work on advocacy and revolution of justice among the minorities, putting aside academician work was important as he was able to make more impact outside academic career. It is evident that the twentieth-century problems with color-line, still represented in the Con’s theology and all frameworks of racism. (Daniels, 2015)
BIOGRAPHY AND COMPUTER REVOLUTION WORK OF GRACE HOOPER
Grace Hopper was born in New York City on December 9, 1906, studied math and physics at Vassar College. She proceeded to Yale University and in 1930 she earned a masters degree in mathematics. Lecturer in 1943 after lecturing as an associate professor at Vassar, she joined the Navy her grandfather’s career. With her mathematic background, she was commissioned as the lieutenant in 1944, and this was her genesis of her field of computer practices. She learned a mark I computer when she was assigned to a computer project at Harvard University,
Grace as a young potential lecture abandons the walls of academia works to serve as a Navy and found herself on the front line of the computer revolution. Her hardworking makes her succeed in the all-male-dominated computer industry, she undergoes personal issues, but in the end she emerges successful where she is celebrated as a stateswoman in the computer age. She is a heroine to thousands of people as an inventor of known computer programming. According to (Gurer, 2002), Beyond that, the mechanism (the computer) can be used to assist humans in learning.
Hooper seems to be influential in most of the male dominated business and military organizations that at this time all women were to devote their daily business on housework and family affairs. The creation of tools that allowed communication between computer and humans was the greatest technical achievement. The advance invention has influenced successive, and future programming and also laid a base for the development of user-friendly computers. More than 8500 programming languages have been created and used since Grace Hopper’s inventions.
Being a woman, Hooper encountered both personal and external challenges that almost undermined her field. A woman at that time of generation could not find a way out in most of the careers as she will be suppressed from the family level to commercial level. Despite Hooper finding herself in the military and public fields, she had to face resistance and discrimination of female gender at her work environment.
The family she comes from had military traditions, and when she joined the army, it was not a surprising thing to anyone. By this time Hooper made through to the military since the government wanted to enhance technology in its operations, with the education she had gained in college, her career was well cultivated. Her contribution came timely when the revolution of the computer was at a critical practice, and also she portrayed a “woman revolution and representation in so-called critical careers that women were discouraged. Hooper made a wise decision to leave academician discipline as all these would not have realized.
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