Choose from Urinary Tract Infection, Renal Calculi, or Incontinence.
Urinary Tract Infection
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Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) are infections that occur in the urinary tract of males or females. The infection is mostly caused by the bacterium Escherichia Coli. This bacterium is normally present within the gastrointestinal tract of human beings and often gets an entry to the urinary tract. The bacterium is a gram-negative one and is detected in diagnostic settings by gram staining test. E. Coli does not retain the Gram Stain and is counterstained by safranin. Therefore, it is called a gram negative one.UTI affects females more than males. This is due to the anatomical proximity of the anus and the vagina in the females. However, improper hygiene and other clinical condition can lead to UTI in both males and females. In certain clinical exigencies, like catheter insertion may predispose individuals to UTIs. Therefore, catheters in hospital settings should be kept in sterilized environment to prevent the menace or prevalence of UTI in hospital settings. According to White (2011) “The reference standard for the diagnosis of UTI is a single organism cultured from a specimen obtained at the following concentrations :suprapubic aspiration specimen, greater than 1,000 colony-forming units per ml; catheter specimen, greater than 10,000 colony-forming units per ml” (p.409).
Other predisposing causes of UTI are diabetes mellitus and any other immune-compromised status. Hence, whenever the immune status of the body decreases it may lead to UTIs. Untreated UTIs may lead to infection in the blood called septicemia. Septicemia is highly fatal and if the microorganism invades the end organs like kidneys or lungs it may lead to the death of the patient (Nicolle, 2008). The symptoms of UTI are increased urgency and frequency of urination, burning sensation while passing urine, mild to moderate fever and often bleeding. Urine for routine culture is done to diagnose the microorganism associated with the infection and the specific antibiotic which may be administered. Preferred antibiotics for UTI are norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Moreover, the patient should maintain hygiene; drink plenty of fluids and cranberry juice to manage UTI. According to Czaja & Hooton (2006), “UTI continues to be a common problem for otherwise healthy adult women. Treatment of UTI has become more difficult because of rising levels of resistance to commonly used antibiotics” (p.39)
A model of UTI is provided below:
Czaja CA, & Hooton TM. (2006). Update on acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women. Postgrad Med;119, 39–45
White, B. (2011). Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections in Children. American Family Physician , 83(4), 409-415