Artificial Intelligence and The Future of Work

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Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Work
Levy, Frank. “The Future of Work: The Three Dimensions of Artificial Intelligence.” Pacific Standard Magazine. Pacific Standard, 2015: Web. 26 Nov. 2015. <http://www.psmag.com/business-economics/the-future-of-work-the-three-dimensions-of-artificial-intelligence>.
This article discusses the three dimensions of artificial intelligence (AI) are their relevance for the American work and workforce. These dimensions include the depth, breadth, and the media picture of artificial intelligence that influences public perception. Depth is used to explain the extent to which AI matches or goes beyond human intelligence. Conversely, breadth is used to mean the manner that software with high levels of sophistication will displace workers. The author posits that media portrayals of AI systems, such an innovation in robotics and the proliferation of the internet, constitutes a new industrial revolution.
Guo, ZX, WK Wong, SYS Leung, and Min Li. “Applications of Artificial Intelligence in the Apparel Industry: a Review.” Textile Research Journal. 81.18 (2011): 1871-1892. Print.
This article presents a review of the modern artificial intelligence applications in the apparel industry. According to the authors, AI techniques has witnessed increased application in the industry. Such applications have covered a number of decision-making problems, including apparel and pattern design, sewing automation, PPC (Production planning and control), marker making, and sales forecasting, among others. The article notes some techniques employed within the industry in solving these problems. They include fuzzy logic, artificial immune system, expert system, neural network, evolution strategy, and multi-agent system. The article suggests that AI approaches are superior to classical approaches and that the systems are likely to replace human labor.
Ford, Martin. Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future. New York, NY: Basic Books, 2015. Print.
This book details what AI and robotics are capable of achieving and calls upon scholars, employers, and policymakers to embrace the implications. Ford argues that past solutions to disruptive technologies, especially education and training, will not work. Therefore, all stakeholders must decide whether the future will be typified by calamitous levels of economic insecurity and inequality, or broad-based prosperity. According to the book, progress in AI will lead to massive losses of both white-and-blue-collar jobs, leading to massive unemployment, inequality, and consumer economy implosion.
Smith, Aaron, and Janna Anderson. “AI, Robotics, and the Future of Jobs.” PewInternet. Pew Research Center, 2015. Web. 26 Nov. 2015. <http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/08/06/future-of-jobs/>.
This article presents the findings of a research conducted in the ubiquity of AI. According to the authors, most respondents anticipate that AI and robotics will pervade most aspects of routine life by 2025, with considerable implications for a number of industries. The industries, predicted to be affected, include transport and logistics, home maintenance, healthcare, and customer service. The authors argue that self-driving vehicles, robots, and intelligent digital agents have advanced rapidly. Overall, the article observes that automated, networked, and AI applications have and will continue to displace more jobs that they create.
Faggella, Daniel. “The Future of Artificial Intelligence – Separating Facts from Fictions.” ieet.org. Institute for Ethics and Emerging technologies, 2015. Web. 26 Nov. 2015. <http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/faggella20151025>.
This article seeks to demystify the controversies that surround AI systems, as well as their implications for the future workforce. The author argues that much of the public assumptions regarding AI are real. AI has become pervasive, even though the article contends that it is nowhere near becoming conscious of itself making purpose-drive decisions. The author gives the example of self-driven cars and HFT (high-frequency trading systems), which are computer algorithms that perform between ninety to ninety-five percent of quotes in financial markets. These have already uprooted humans in the financial industry. The author contends that it is important to counter the negative with positive solutions.
Blomkamp, Neill, dir. Chappie. Columbia Pictures, 2015. Film.
The film is about AI law enforcement robots. The film shows the streets being patrolled by mechanized robots in the near future by presenting one particular robot named Chappie that is capable of thinking and feeling for himself. Chappie begins to understand the nature of humans, which leads it to alter its thinking according to its artificially brisk upbringing. The film contemplates the future in a world run on AI. The issue outlined in the movie, which is that humans must remain in control over the AI systems they create if they are to avert peril, is an issue that persists in the AI discourse.
Karoly, Lynn A, and Constantijn W. A. Panis. The 21st Century at Work: Forces Shaping the Future Workforce and Workplace in the United States. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2004. Print.
The authors of this book contend that AI and robotics technologies will likely advance further, with increasingly sophisticated systems linked together via wireless networks. They note the continued use of intelligent robotics in agile manufacturing, as well as the implications of these technologies for manufacturing inventories. The authors argue that AI and the exploitation of miniaturized computer chips present problems to the future human workforce. With non-computing capabilities being added to chips, chips will be able to function as actuators or sensors. Future systems will not require the human input, which is likely to occasion massive unemployment.
De, Momi E, and G Ferrigno. “Robotic and Artificial Intelligence for Keyhole Neurosurgery: the Robocast Project, a Multi-Modal Autonomous Path Planner.” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine. 224.5 (2010): 715-27. Print.
This article examines the ROBOCAST (robot and sensors integration for computer-assisted surgery and therapy) project. The project focuses on focuses on the robot- and AI-assisted keyhole neurosurgery. The aim of the project is to aid surgeons with robotic systems that are controlled by an HLC (high-level controller) to collect and integrate information from diagnostic images, the surgeon, as well as from numerous other on-field sensors. With such developments, the role played by nursing staff in surgery is likely to reduce.
Liao, Pei-Hung, Pei-Ti Hsu, William Chu, and Woei-Chyn Chu. “Applying Artificial Intelligence Technology to Support Decisionmaking in Nursing: A Case Study in Taiwan.” Health Informatics Journal. 21.2 (2015): 137–148.
This study applies AI to aid nurses in addressing problems through information technology. The authors argue that nurses often make diagnoses based on their clinical experience, instinct, and professional knowledge. Nevertheless, in the absence of proper knowledge, diagnostic precision may be compromised, leading to delayed decisions. Therefore, this study investigates the use of AI in generating nursing diagnoses. The results indicate that the agreement between diagnoses made by AI systems and those of human nurses was nearly eighty-seven percent. Accordingly, as such systems continue to develop, the need for nurses in making diagnoses may reduce tremendously.
Waltz, David L. “Evolution, Sociobiology, and the Future of Artificial Intelligence.” columbia.edu. Columbia University, 2012. Web. 26 Nov. 2015. <http://www1.cs.columbia.edu/~waltz/Papers/Evolution%20Sociobiology-IEEE%20Jun-06%20p-66-69.pdf>.
This article examines what AI systems will look like in both short and long terms. The author argues that the AI demonstrations of the future will do well things that humans are not able to do efficiently or do not like doing. Waltz further contends that both far-term and near-term future systems will be required to be designed to interact effortlessly with humans, which will likely put some constraints on such systems. However, the principal theme in this article is that in the long term, there will be some sort of sociobiological competition between intelligent entities, which will result in the reproduction of certain intelligent applications, as well as the replication of autonomous systems.

Works Cited
Blomkamp, Neill, dir. Chappie. Columbia Pictures, 2015. Film.
De, Momi E, and G Ferrigno. “Robotic and Artificial Intelligence for Keyhole Neurosurgery: the Robocast Project, a Multi-Modal Autonomous Path Planner.” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine. 224.5 (2010): 715-27. Print.
Faggella, Daniel. “The Future of Artificial Intelligence – Separating Facts from Fictions.” ieet.org. Institute for Ethics and Emerging technologies, 2015. Web. 26 Nov. 2015. <http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/faggella20151025>.
Ford, Martin. Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future. New York, NY: Basic Books, 2015. Print.
Guo, ZX, WK Wong, SYS Leung, and Min Li. “Applications of Artificial Intelligence in the Apparel Industry: a Review.” Textile Research Journal. 81.18 (2011): 1871-1892. Print.
Karoly, Lynn A, and Constantijn W. A. Panis. The 21st Century at Work: Forces Shaping the Future Workforce and Workplace in the United States. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2004. Print.
Levy, Frank. “The Future of Work: The Three Dimensions of Artificial Intelligence.” Pacific Standard Magazine. Pacific Standard, 2015: Web. 26 Nov. 2015. <http://www.psmag.com/business-economics/the-future-of-work-the-three-dimensions-of-artificial-intelligence>.
Liao, Pei-Hung, Pei-Ti Hsu, William Chu, and Woei-Chyn Chu. “Applying Artificial Intelligence Technology to Support Decisionmaking in Nursing: A Case Study in Taiwan.” Health Informatics Journal. 21.2 (2015): 137–148.
Smith, Aaron, and Janna Anderson. “AI, Robotics, and the Future of Jobs.” PewInternet. Pew Research Center, 2015. Web. 26 Nov. 2015. <http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/08/06/future-of-jobs/>.
Waltz, David L. “Evolution, Sociobiology, and the Future of Artificial Intelligence.” columbia.edu. Columbia University, 2012. Web. 26 Nov. 2015. <http://www1.cs.columbia.edu/~waltz/Papers/Evolution%20Sociobiology-IEEE%20Jun-06%20p-66-69.pdf>.