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The problem with healthcare in shanghai compared to bangkok

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The problem with healthcare in shanghai compared to bangkok

Category: Quantitative Research

Subcategory: International

Level: College

Pages: 5

Words: 1375

International Relations
Name:
Institution:
Introduction
China has moved from being the world’s leading opponent of globalization and the most prominent disrupter of the creation of global institutions to being a devoted part of the countries that advocate for globalization. Its economy has become increasingly more open compared to Japan, and its institutions are being globalized to an extent never witnessed before. Chinese institutions are constantly being updated, and the Chinese civilization is under transformation following the adoption of democracy, its devotion to competition, the penetration of English, acceptable of overseas education as well as several foreign regulations and institutions. The country has surpassed Japan, India and Brazil in promoting free trade and investment. Nonetheless, rapid Chinese globalization has required stressful adjustments. The potential mismatch between the growth models of cities in China the culture of the Chinses is leading to the serious problem of pollution.
Environment
With a massive population of 1.3 billion people, the country has small natural resource endowment on the basis of per capita, while its per capita fertile land in merely a third to a half of the average of the world; water resource accounts for a quarter and oil reserves a mere one-eighth. The nation’s organic volume is merely 1.04 global hectare/person, slightly more than half of the world average.
Air Pollution

The nation is home to seven of the ten most contaminated cities on Earth. Air pollution leads to the premature death of 300,000 lives each year, a representation of over 40 percent of air pollution connected deaths in emerging nations and is over twice the total in South Asia (Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2015). While there has been a reduction in urban air pollution due to the shift from coal to oil or natural oil, large-scale change away from cycles and mass transportation toward private transit in previous years has balanced all the advantages and further worsened air pollution. For the mainstream of the inhabitants who still depend on bicycles and public carriage, they have to put up with the dirty air and snowballing traffic jams occasioned by the outburst of vehicles.
Water Scarcity and Water Pollution
The overreliance on groundwater and the declining capability of water conservation by the local vegetation have deteriorated supply of water from the rivers in the many previous decades. For the first time, the river was unable to reach the sea in 1972, and after a serious drought in 1997, the river failed to cover the remaining 700 kilometres for 220 days. This has severely disrupted normal life and agricultural activities of the families along the basins and resulted in more worsening in the local ecosystem. There is strong and bitter rivalry for water between the predominantly farming upstream regions and more developed coastal regions.
Because of water scarcities and extensive contamination of water, an increasing number of cities and village are resorting more to underground sources. Each year, the water table is decreasing by 1.5 metres in North China Plain, an area that represents 40 percent of the grains in China. The water table declined by nearly 3 metres in 1999 in Beijing and has reduced by about 59 metres since 1965 (Qin, 2015). 
Nearly 55 percent of the water contained in seven main rivers are ranked as Grade Four or worse—implying, not appropriate for human use. Sixty-five percent of the waters suffer from numerous amounts of pollution, caused mainly by agricultural runoff and polluted wastewater released by companies. Per area, Chinese farmers use double as several manures and insecticides as farmers from the U.S. In excess of one-third of the manufacturing used water and two-thirds of wastewater controlled by the municipals find its way into waterways without first undergoing treatment. The government launched a major clean-up exercise in 1994 to purify Huai River, one of the rivers that are highly polluted. The initiative proved futile as the rivers are still highly polluted. Even with the installation of water treatment equipment, numerous corporations would rather pay levies rather than working the apparatus. The State Environmental Protection Agency has the very little power that the levies they collect are regularly not more than the budget of operating the water treatment (In Bu & In Yang, 2014). Consistent with SEPA approximations, water management equipment is connected to several main manufacturing plants under administration directive, one-third is not used completely, and the other one-third is operated intermittently.
Pollution is worsening the water shortage problem as well. There have been water shortages in previously water rich Pearl River Delta as well as Yangtze River Delta areas, and the increasing pollution has rendered most of the water unusable. Pollution is also spreading to underground aquifers—as one-quarter of the aquifers is estimated to be polluted.
Land Degradation and Soil Pollution
An assessment carried out by the State Forestry Administration indicates that 2.7 million square kilometres of land in China are arid, a representation of 30 percent of its total land, and the desert regions continue to expand with a mean of approximately 10,400 square kilometres yearly. Thirty-six percent of entire land suffers from varying extents of soil erosion.
As a result of soil erosion, salination and pollution, nearly 40 percent of the nation’s desert land is ruined. Farmlands are reducing at an alarming rate due to increased industrialization and urbanization. The government introduced an Act that would protect the already limited arable land by requiring companies occupying arable land to create a similar size in a different place. Though the policy has led to the reduction in the emergency of landless farmers, the overall result is more lands are regained for farming while productive lands are put to further uses. A geological survey conducted by Guangdong Province between 1999 and 2002 on 10,000 square kilometres of arable land in Pearl River Delta area revealed that a mere 10 percent can be considered clean, about 36 percent is heavily polluted, and the remaining is less polluted. Cadmium was found in 46 percent of the land while mercury polluted another 12.6 percent (Gallagher, 2014). 
Green House Gas Discharges and Global Warming
Although China’s per capita release proportion is a lot lesser compared to the US, Europe or different industrialised nations, because of its enormous populace of 1.3 billion persons, the aggregate release is substantial. It is the second biggest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter on Earth. Consistent with China’s proposal to the United Nations, it discharged 2.76 billion tons of carbon monoxide, 36.3 million tons of methane and 860,000 tons of nitrous dioxide in 1995.

The increase in private vehicle number in previous years has increased the nation’s importation of oil as it presently imports 33 percent of its oil requirement, which is anticipated to double by 2020. China consumed about 40% of the power produced on Earth between 2000 and 2004 and in consideration of the present rate of growth of its GDP, it could surpass the United States as the leading discharger in 2020. The north of China is expected to receive less rainfall due to global warming and more rainwater in the south. This is by observations in current years—as there has been an incessant famine in the North China Plain from the beginning of the 1990s though flooding catastrophes have regularly occurred in the south. This result has been particularly heightened since the 1990s. Changes in climate result to a decrease in the production of rice, wheat and maize by between 20 and 37 percent over the course of the following 20 to 80 years, according to an article written in 2004 by the governments of China and Britain (Chorafas, 2009). 
In conclusion, the potential mismatch between the growth models of cities in China the culture of the Chinses is leading to the serious problem of pollution. Pollution has resulted in the pollution of the air, led to the pollution and scarcity of water, resulted in land degradation and soil pollution. The sharp increase in some private vehicle ownership has also increased gas emissions and contributed negatively to global warming. Several large Asian cities have relied on the Western model of growth for their expansion. This model, however, is deeply rooted to capitalist societies, encompassing the idea that progress is assessed by progress in luxury, convenience, as well as economic activity. This has led to entirely different results for Beijing in China as there is a potential mismatch between the residents of Beijing and the growth model being pursued.
References
Chorafas, D. N. (2009). Globalization’s limits: Conflicting national interests in trade and finance. Farnham, UK: Gower.
Gallagher, K. S. (2014). The globalization of clean energy technology: Lessons from China. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., & Hoskisson, R. E. (2015). Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization : concepts & cases. Stamford, Conn: Cengage Learning.
In Bu, M., & In Yang, B. (2014). Globalization and the environment of China. Bingley, UK: Emerald.
Qin, B. (2015). Sustainable development in rural China: Field survey and Sino-Japan comparative analysis. Heidelberg: Springer.

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