Impact of Maternal Diet During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding on Infant Metabolic Programming: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study”
Impact of Maternal Diet during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding on Infant Metabolic Programming: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study
It is indubitably clear that there has been an increase in metabolic disorders such as obesity across the globe. These increases have been highly demonstrated in the pediatric population with the condition beginning before birth. In the article ‘Impact of maternal diet during pregnancy and breastfeeding on infant metabolic programming: a prospective randomized controlled study’ Aaltonen et al., evidence that obesity leads to impaired glucose (10). The researchers add that blood pressure is as a result of early nutrition to the infant and postnatal life, which forms an essential point of intervention. Therefore, the rationale behind this study is to ensure effective and efficient eating habit for the pregnant mothers to reduce the possibility of the infants contracting these conditions after birth. Hence, the broader aim is to ensure there are reduced metabolic conditions such as obesity among children, especially, in the industrialized countries to reduce children mortality.
Through this approach, this research study objects to investigate the impacts of diet at the time of woman pregnancy on the infant status as well as during breastfeeding (Aaltonen et al., 10). The focus is directed to the dietary aspects leading to the improvement components, particularly at a high composition of fat elements with abnormal intuitive microbiota expansion by probiotics. The article, therefore, investigates on whether the benefits attained from their diet management can lead to metabolic health at six months.
A series of methods were incorporated which directed the randomization of 256 pregnant women into the control group for counseling, probiotics/diet, and placebo. With the application of double-blinded randomization, the counseling objected excessive and high fat composition and low-fibre usage (Aaltonen et al., 11). By the use of three-day diaries, Aaltonen et al. focused on the evaluation of maternal diet during pregnancy and postpartum. Metabolic elements, proinsulin, adiponectin ratio/leptin, skinfold, waist circumference and serum 32-33 split were observed to reflect the infant metabolic status.
This study composed of various methods of collection and analysis of data. These include the study design, sampling, and analytical techniques that were important in the generation of credible results and a focused conclusion (Aaltonen et al., 12).
Under the research deign, the researchers focused on a randomized group of pregnant women and excluded those with chronic diseases complication. With close observation, they carried out an experiment for efficiency included a control group. An arrangement of each study visit was organized where the participants attended municipal clinics like those in the dietary groups receiving intensive dietary counseling (Aaltonen et al., 12). The fact that they carried out research on a particular area, Finland, and a specific target made the study design effective. The sampling method was also important in enabling evaluation and analysis of the metabolic status of the infants. Venous blood samples were collected from 194 infants and taken for further analysis. Through the application of various analytical methods, the research study led to the objected results.
The research also applied various secondary methods of collection where they applied different theories and facts for statistical analysis. The whole research was arranged in a systematic and chronological manner to avoid confusion (Aaltonen et al., 12). The subtopics were clear highlighted beginning with the study design, maternal foods and infant nutrient evaluation, clinical characteristic evaluation, sampling, and finally statistical analyzes and tabulation (Aaltonen et al., 13). This arrangement makes the research study easy to follow and understand.
The result indicated that infant percentage with heightened 32-33 proinsulin substantially lesser in dietary counseling and probiotics (n¼6/62 and 9.7%) or palliative (n¼7/69, 10.1%) relatively to the control group (n¼17/63, 27.0%) (Aaltonen et al., 14). It was also shown that the increased proinsulin was due to larger skinfold thickness, increased ration for leptin in children (Po0.05) and waist circumference. Due to the diet of a woman during pregnancy, the high and low-fat tertile intake has heightened the risk of a child to high proinsulin, while those with butter related disparately with the circumference of the waist. Also, Aaltonen et al. found out that breastfeeding of children demonstrated a reduced possibility of heightened split-proinsulin and adiponectin ratio in comparison to infants formula feeding.
It was also found that all pregnant mothers are Caucasian. 74% of the pregnant women have a university or college education. The median for infants’ 32-33 split proinsulin was measured to be 3.7pmol/I(1.2-20.0), and leptin measured to be 3.7ng/ as adiponectin became 13.5ug/ when an infant is at the age of six months (Aaltonen et al., 14).
It can be concluded that maternal diet modifications during pregnancy and breastfeeding are important for infant development of essential metabolic and health at large. Increased split proinsulin indicates adversarial effects on metabolic status during childhood, which can be developed by ensuring there is primary counseling (Aaltonen et al., 17). Therefore, the intrauterine composes of some opportunities that can give way to the interventions that are focused on reducing condition metabolic risk in mother and child. Therefore, this is an implication of the achievement of the health for more than two generation.
Aaltonen, Jonna, Ojala, Tiina, Kirsi, Laitinen, Tuija, Poussa, Sue, Ozanne, & Erika, Isolauri, “Impact of Maternal Diet During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding on Infant Metabolic Programming: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2011) 65, 10–19; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.225; Print.