for optimal level of provision of public goods, the efficiency of the economic output level will occur when:
Marginal Cost=Marginal Social Benefit
Since the three consumers exist in the same market, then
Why public goods may not be supplied at all because of the free-rider problem
A situation whereby an individual believes that someone else will provide the goods for them is termed as a free-rider problem .for any price lower than 310, the demand for the public good is positive. Despite this, no consumer is ready and willing to pay a price above 150. To be able to meet a price of 190 then means that two or more consumers must be willing to contribute towards the public goods. The free riders will consume the goods without paying anything in anticipation that other consumers will pay. It, therefore, becomes difficult to raise the funds to supply the public with goods hence this leads to underproduction of the good and no supply at all.
the benefit that arises from the provision of the public is given by the triangle xyz where the height xy is the difference between 310 and 190. If the public good is not supplied the benefit will be lost and therefore becomes the deadweight loss.
The area of the triangle xyz=1/2(310-190)*(40) =4800.
The marginal cost for public good=10
Marginal rate of substitution=1
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