Young People’s attitude toward smoking in UK
Young People’s attitude toward smoking in the UK
This study will analyze the young generation’s experience of smoking. This project was chosen due to personal interest and experience as a passive smoker. Smoking is one of the most harmful habits among young people. However, scientists and physicians continue to be concerned by the spread of this addiction. According to the WHO (World Health Organization), smoking is responsible for about one in six deaths. Every year over 100,000 smokers in the UK die from smoking-related causes (WHO, 2014). In England about 22 % of men and 17% of women smoke despite all information that shows danger of smoking (for example in 2012-13, the UK government spent £87.7 million on anti-tobacco advertising (ASH, 2013)
By the end of high schools approximately about 12.5% of boys and girls smoke (Loke & Yuen 87). No less is the risk of passive smoking, sometimes referred to as ‘second-hand smoking.’ (This is where non-smokers are forced to inhale tobacco poisoned air, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, and in much larger quantities than by smoking, hydrogen cyanide, benzene, toluene, acrolein and other toxic and carcinogenic substance. As a result of so-called passive smoking by 34% increases the risk of lung cancer by 50% – vascular disease (Loke & Yuen 89).
Every year about 3000 non-smokers die from lung cancer caused by passive smoking. (The WHO,2014 )
Children are the main potential victims of tobacco smoking. 250 million of children alive today could die from diseases related to smoking. 700 million children, or almost half of world’s children, breathe air polluted by tobacco smoke.
To discover at what age young people start smoking.
To analyze the reason, which motivate young people to smoke.
To investigate the difference between men and women attitude smoking.
At what age young people start to smoke?
Why do young people start to smoke directly or experience second-hand smoking?
What is the gender difference in smoking attitude?
The harm of smoking for teenagers – one of the most important problems, the solution of which must be approached with responsibility and full understanding of the problem. Currently, it has become a very interesting trend: despite the various warnings and anti-advertising of tobacco the number of teenagers smoking in the last couple of years has increased. The New England Journal of Medicine (TNEJM, 2013) According to statistics, the number of smoking boys in high school education is about 75% and about 64% for girls. And every year these numbers are growing. Almost all manifested clearly expressed nicotine dependence. The average age of teenagers, who started smoking, ranged between 13-15 years. Also, despite the fact that there are clearly publicized laws for tobacco sales, in practice, it is well known that cigarettes could be bought by anyone who has money (TNEJM, 2013)
The effect of nicotine on the still fragile teenage body is irreparable. Severe consequences concerning getting chronic diseases and even disability usually do not stop students. By the statistics (TNEJM, 2103) 59 % of teens said they have tried smoking at least once in their lives.
The strengths of this journal article are that the acquisition of important knowledge about tobacco usage among young adults is readily available given the presence of previously written articles for referral advantages. Moreover, the article involves using information collected from one on one encounters. Therefore, this provides the research with higher levels of accuracy.
The weaknesses of this journal article are that the entire focus of the research is on young people using tobacco. This act diverts from the main problem that the research problems in this context arise from. This is the fact that tobacco usage in the world has led to negative effects to people of all ages and not only among young people. The negative effects also occur amongst the second-hand smokers.
If we look at this issue in the light of a particular social group, one of the most pressing is the problem of smoking amongst high school students. Young teenagers, who are still developing their consciousness and personality, are particularly vulnerable to peer pressure. (Zones 88) In addition to the influence of others, there is a personal desire to appear more mature of many modern young teenagers. According to the study, the impact may have originated from their parents as a bad example and just by adults, not finding anything wrong. Young people need more attention, both from the parents and from teachers who need more than watch the aspirations and inclinations of students (ASH, 2013).
The main reason that encourages young people to smoke is the misconception that the habit will add them courage and maturity. Imitating the heroes of popular films, they sometimes go too far. Of course, it is difficult to resist and not to repeat the famous simulated pose with a cigarette in one hand smoking, especially when individuals are young people are not fully formed and are not defined in their preferences and attitudes towards one or the other teens.
The Internet is another source as to which teenagers begin to have an interest in smoking. This an unregulated source of entertainment in which teenagers have been found to research upon smoking interests including second-hand smoking (Zones, 88)
The main strength of this article is that describes in detail the reasons that can cause aung adults to start smoking from peer pressure, personal desire to be more mature, the internet and other sources of entertainment.
On the other hand, the weaknesses in this article are that it contains some forms of bias such as it places blames on parents when their children engage in smoking. Although some parents might play a substantial part in influencing their children, they are not entirely to blame.
On to the case study, findings are that the gender differences in the attitudes smoking in early teenage years vaguely exist. The intensity of smoking initiation for boys and girls are different: if the bulk of the boys attached to smoking before the age of 14 years, inclusive, then the girls, on the other hand, a peak in the 13-14 years of smoking initiation is just beginning communion bulk of girls smoking, and there is much more quickly than boys. British Journal of Sociology (The BJOS, March 2001)
However, in analyzing students in college, there exists a major difference in gender when it comes to the percentage of students who have smoked at least one cigarette (Kosmidou 46). In a random American college, almost 55% of the male students had reported indulging in smoking in the past one month. On the other hand, female students who reported indulging in smoking in the past one month were 35% (Anderson 45). Moving on to the student’s opinions on smoking, females proved to have a more stringent and negative views towards smoking as compared to males. Males were also more comfortable with relating to the members of the opposite sex who smoke by a higher percentage than women. All students who had indulged in smoking for the past month period believed that they would eventually stop smoking in the future. The female percentage that supported this plan was higher than that of male students.
The strength of this research is that one can use a large sample size to produce a much accurate analysis of the problem.
On the other hand, the weakness of this research question is that although the study was conducted for students in a particular location that may not be representative of the opinions of the whole population.
The next article will be a quantitative research by Zones. The study shows that smoking in young adults begins at ages below 18. A collection of data on the number of teenagers who have tried smoking for the first time was at an average of 2500 cases in the world every single day. Although little data was collected on the issues, it appears that children under the age of 12, which are the peak years of attempting to smoke are most likely in the 6th and 7th grades or between the ages of 11 and 12 yet another considerable number begin to smoke earlier. In recent periods of the year 2013, an average percentage of five among the eighth-grade students are reported to have had their first cigarette encounters. As for the ages between 10 and 11, a 14.8% had already smoked by the completion of their eighth grade. Another fact was found that a quarter of the twelfth-grade students had used cigarettes by the completion of their tenth grades (Lancet 15-33).
A nationwide survey in the United States came up with findings that every one in ten high school students had smoked one whole cigarette by the age of 13. In 2014, another nationwide monitor on the future study concerning drug abuse reported that one in every three twelve grade students and more than one in every five tenth grade students had ever tried smoking. The percentages for the two cases are 34.4% and 22.6% respectively. Every single day an average of 580 children have already had experiences with smoking, and the act is then regular which makes them into almost daily smokers (Zones, 87).
The case study on the above information concludes that more than 80% of all adult smokers begin their smoking habits before the age of eighteen and more than 90% do this before leaving their teenage years.
A case-control study determines that there exist factors that facilitate young adults to begin smoking. Most from nuclear families with smokers present are more likely to start smoking than for those from nuclear families that have no present smokers (Roddy 67).
Among the facilitation of smoking among young adults, is that television ads and commercials that promote tobacco usage from its influences in the society. The teenagers that were interviewed claimed that their attempt to start smoking cigarettes was out of pure curiosity and that the act was known to be “cool” among their peers.
The strengths of the study in this article are that the method provides precise numerical data that is vital to analysis, analysis of the data is not time-consuming, and it is helpful in studying a large number of people.
On the other hand, the weaknesses of that the researcher’s theories and categories utilized might not show local constituencies’ understandings and the data produced might turn out to be too general or abstract for direct application.
This research will utilize a qualitative research. Moreover, it will also consist of a quantitative features. The strategy used in this research will be a non-random strategy. The research designs are suitable for this kind of research as it will investigate the behavior of participants.
Questionnaire method will be selected as it suitable for this kind of research.
Questionnaires are easy to collect, are comfortable to keep anonymous, and convenient to complete for participants.
There will be 50 questions to help examine the deeper understanding of research.
The questionnaires will be distributed among Under Graduate and Post Graduate students of 2- term.
The research will be conducted in KICL placement for the convenience of participants.
The questionnaire would be posted online among Under Graduate and Post Graduate students of 2- term and the first 100 people would be selected for the research. The questionnaire will include fifty questions that the individuals under question will be expected to answer as honestly as possible. All information submitted by the sample size will be kept confidential. The reason behind selecting a questionnaire is that this method is practical, a large amount of information can be easily collected from a large sample size, and it can be carried out by a specific researcher or some people without affecting its reliability or validity.
Week 1 to 2: Developing literature review
Week 3 to 5: Design questioners
Week 6 to 8: Collecting Data and analyze
Week 9 to 10: Submission of research proposal
The ethical considerations during the conduction of this research are important during the distinction between what is right and wrong. Most societies have legal rules that are meant to govern behaviors during given actions, but ethical norms tend to be more informal and broader. This fact means that a particular action may be legal and at the same time unethical. Ethical concepts and principles in the case of tobacco usage can go through critics and different interpretations. For instance, this research may require the collection of picture samples to be displayed during analysis and data compilation in the study.
I) Informed consent. It is a mandatory requirement that before a picture of any individual is taken, the researcher must ask for permission from them.
II) Protecting privacy. All information submitted by the individuals will be kept confidential, and submissions by the sample size kept anonymously.
III) Deliberate deception. The researcher is also not allowed to deceive the people answering the questionnaire in any way. Instead, he should abide by all the conditions stipulated in the terms and conditions clause.
IV) Direct/Indirect harm. Another ethical issue is that the groups of people used in the research are not supposed to feel uncomfortable during the conduction of interviews. Moreover, embarrassing the individuals during the process of extracting information is unethical. During the display of images from the photography sessions, the theme settings should not entirely depict negative views about the individuals in the pictures. A mixture of a positive theme in the form of images should be used to neutralize the message in the research data compilation (Harwood, Robin & Scott, 236-267).
The above research approach is important in determining the solution to the research problem upon the usage of tobacco amongst young people in the world today.
Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) (2015).Young People and Smoking. [online] Available at: <http://ash.org.uk/files/documents/ASH_108.pdf> [Accessed 29 October 2015].
Denscombe M. Uncertain identities and health-risking behavior: the case of young people and smoking in late modernity // British Journal of Sociology Vol. 52 Issue 1 (March 2001) pp. 157-177
Harwood, Robin, and Scott A. Miller. “Ethics in Research.” Child Psychology: Development in a Changing Society. 5th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2008. 476. Print.
Kosmidou, Evdoxia. “Differences In Smoking Attitudes Of Adolescents And Young Adults.” Psychological Reports PR: 475. Print.
Lancet, The. “Tobacco Smoking: Why Start?” The Lancet (2001): 1038. Print.
6. McCarthy, Michael. “Smoking Increases among Minority Teenagers in the USA.” The Lancet: 1414. Print.
Zones, Jane Sprague. “Smoking. Why Do We Start? Why Don’t We Stop?” Möbius: A Journal for Continuing Education Professionals in Health Sciences J. Contin. Educ. Health Prof.: 86-90. Print.
Anderson, Judith. Smoking. North Mankato, MN: Smart Apple Media, 2006. Print.
Roddy, Elin. “Chapter 10 Smoking Cessation in Young People.” Smoking Cessation (2010). Print.
Loke, Alice Yuen, and Yuen Ping Ivy Wong. “Smoking among Young Children in the UK: Influence of Parental Smoking.” Journal of Advanced Nursing (2010): 2659-670. Print.