Young People’s attitude toward smoking e

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Young People’s attitude toward smoking e

Category: Research Proposal

Subcategory: Marketing

Level: College

Pages: 5

Words: 1375

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Young People’s attitude toward smoking.
Introduction
This study will analyze young generation’s experience of smoking. This problem was chosen due to personal interest and experience as a passive smoker. Smoking is one of the most harmful habits among young people. However, scientists and physicians continue to be concerned by the spread of this addiction. According to the WHO (World Health Organization), smoking handles about one in six deaths. Every year over 100,000 smokers in the UK die from smoking related causes. In England about 22 % of men and 17% of women smoke despite all information that shows the danger of smoking (for example in 2012-13, the UK government spent £87.7 million on anti-tobacco advertising).
By the end of high schools approximately about 12.5% of boys and girls smoke. No less is the risk of passive smoking, sometimes referred to as ‘second-hand smoking’. This is where non-smokers are forced to inhale tobacco poisoned air, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, and in much larger quantities than by smoking, hydrogen cyanide, benzene, toluene, acrolein and other toxic and carcinogenic substance. As a result of so-called passive smoking by 34% increases the risk of lung cancer by 50% – vascular disease. .
Every year about 3000 non-smokers dies from lung cancer caused by passive smoking. (WHO)
Children are the main potential victims of tobacco smoking. 250 million of children alive today could die from diseases related to smoking. 700 million children, or almost half of world’s children, breathe air polluted by tobacco smoke.
Research Objectives
To discover at what age young people start smoking.
To analyze the reason, that motivate young people to smoke.
To investigate the difference between men and women attitude smoking.
Research questions
At what age young people start to smoke?
Why do young people start to smoke?
What is the gender difference in smoking attitude?
Literature review
The harm of smoking for teenagers – one of the most important problems, the solution of which must be approached with responsibility and full understanding of the problem.
Currently, it is seen a very interesting trend: despite the various warnings and anti-advertising of tobacco the number of teenagers smoking in the last couple of years has increased. The New England Journal of Medicine (TNEJM, Year) According to statistics, the number of smoking boys in high school education is about 75% and 64% for girls. And every year these numbers are growing. Almost all manifested clearly expressed nicotine dependence. The average age of teenagers who started smoking ranged between 13-15 years. Also, despite the fact that there are clearly publicized laws for tobacco sales, in practice, it is well known that cigarettes could be bought by anyone who has money(REF).
The effects of nicotine on the still fragile teenage body are irreparable. Severe consequences regarding getting chronic diseases and even disability usually do not stop students. By the statistics (TNEJM) 59 % of teens said they have tried smoking at least once in their lives.
The strengths of this journal article are that the acquisition of important knowledge about tobacco usage among young adults is readily available given the presence of previously written articles for referral advantages. Moreover, the article involves using information collected from one on one encounters. Therefore, this provides the research with higher levels of accuracy.
The weaknesses of this journal article are that the entire focus of the research on young people using tobacco or affected by the act diverts from the main problem that the research problems in this context rose from. This is the fact that tobacco usage in the world has led to negative effects to people of all ages.
Research designs
The research designs suitable for this kind of research topic included the descriptive and the correlational studies. The descriptive research method, in this case, evolves around the use of case studies as well as naturalistic observation strategies on the use of tobacco amongst the young generation. The case study on young people’s attitudes towards smoking as guided by the research questions includes the analysis of previously found data on the topic of tobacco abuse among young adults.
This case study involves the thorough examination of the case as well as its relation to other fields in the research. Mostly clinical practices about the case above are main sources of the data collected through the use of this design. Quantitative data usage is mandatory during the inclusion to the information collection with this design,
The correlational research design has to do with case-control studies as well as observation on the usage of tobacco. The case-control study protocol involves the usage of observational techniques in which the outcome of two different groups under a particular exposure are taken through an analysis for the achievement of valid information.
The advantage of using these designs on the topic of research are that they are perfectly suitable with this kind of research. The designs also point out on paths for the discovery of new information as well as the advancement of knowledge in the field of research.
The disadvantages of the designs outlined above are that most of the research relies upon the analysis of previous data in comparison to the current collection that implies that if existent, the errors are carried forward to the analysis of newly obtained data. Another is that observation as a common method of data collection does not provide the same levels of evidence and are confounded by other factors that are not taken into consideration.
Methods of research
The research methods falling concurrent to the above research designs in the collection of data are both qualitative and quantitative.
A quantitative research shows that smoking in young adults begins at ages below 18. A collection of data on the number of teenagers who have tried smoking for the first time was at an average of 2500 cases in the world every single day. Although little data was collected on the issues, it appears that children under the age of 12, which are the peak years of attempting to smoke are most likely in the 6th and 7th grades or between the ages of 11 and 12 yet another considerable number begin to smoke earlier. In recent periods of the year 2013, an average percentage of five among the eighth-grade students are reported to have had their first cigarette encounters. As for the ages between 10 and 11, a 14.8% had already smoked by the completion of their eighth grade. Another fact was found that a quarter of the twelfth-grade students had used cigarettes by the completion of their tenth grades (Lancet 15-33).
A nationwide survey in the United States came up with findings that every one in ten high school students had smoked one whole cigarette by the age of 13. In 2014, another nationwide monitor on the future study concerning drug abuse reported that one in every three twelve grade students and more than one in every five tenth grade students had ever tried smoking. The percentages for the two cases are 34.4% and 22.6% respectively. Every single day an average of 580 children have already had experiences with smoking, and the act is then regular which makes them into almost daily smokers (Mccarthy, 584).
The case study on the above information concludes that more than 80% of all adult smokers begin their smoking habits before the age of eighteen and more than 90% do this before leaving their teenage years.
A case-control study determines that there exist factors that facilitate young adults to begin smoking. Most from nuclear families with smokers present are more likely to start smoking than for those from nuclear families that have no present smokers.
Among the facilitation of smoking among young adults, is that television ads and commercials that promote tobacco usage from its influences in the society. The teenagers that were interviewed claimed that their attempt to start smoking cigarettes was out of pure curiosity and that the act was known to be “cool” among their peers.
The internet is another source as to which teenagers begin to have an interest in smoking. The internet is an unregulated source of entertainment in which teenagers have been found to research upon smoking interests (Zones, 88)
On to the case study, findings are that the gender differences in the attitudes smoking in early teenage years vaguely exists. However, in analyzing students in college, there exists a major difference in gender when it comes to the percentage of students who have smoked at least one cigarette (Kosmidou 46). In a random American college, almost 55% of the male students had reported indulging in smoking in the past one month. On the other hand, female students who reported indulging in smoking in the past one month was 35%. Moving on to the students opinions on smoking, females proved to have a more stringent and negative views towards smoking as compared to males. Males were also more comfortable with relating to the members of the opposite sex who smoke by a higher percentage than women. All students who had indulged in smoking for the past month period believed that they would eventually stop smoking in the future. The female percentage that supported this plan was higher than that of male students.
Timeline
The research timeline of the topic on the young people’s attitudes towards smoking is reflected in the table below.
month Project goal Related objective activity Expected completion date Person responsible
1 To enhance the understanding of the effects upon second-hand smokers Asses the reasons as to why the number of victim cases increases Conduct a survey on tobacco users and their surroundings. Take photographs. ongoing Associate research colleagues
1 To determine the number of addiction cases on tobacco usage. To assess reasons as to why tobacco usage is common among the young adults. Conduct a sampling quantitative data collection ongoing Associate research colleagues
1 To determine the relationship between gender and attitudes towards smoking practices. To analyze the reasons as to why there exists difference in attitudes concerning smoking among young adults. Conduction of interviews amongst different groups of youth. Month 2 Research director
2 To determine the reasons behind the adoption of smoking cultures among young people To assess the culture circulation amongst young people who are cigarette smokers. The analysis of previous data after collection from secondary sources. Month2 Research director
2 To determine the ages at which young people begin to smoke To understand the reasons behind the use of tobacco among young adults. Conduction of open-ended interviews on students and taking of photographs on concerning themes of the tobacco usage act. Month2 Research Associates
Ethical considerations
The ethical considerations during the conduction of this research are important during the distinction between what is right and wrong. Most societies have legal rules that are meant to govern behaviors during given actions, but ethical norms tend to be more informal and broader. This fact means that a particular action may be legal and at the same time unethical. Ethical concepts and principles in the case of tobacco usage can go through critics and different interpretations. For instance, this research may require the collection of picture samples to be displayed during analysis and data compilation in the study. It is a mandatory requirement that before a picture of any individual is taken, the researcher must ask for permission from them. Another ethical issue is that the groups of people used in the research are not supposed to feel uncomfortable during the conduction of interviews. Moreover, embarrassing the individuals during the process of extracting information is unethical. During the display of images from the photography sessions, the theme settings should not entirely depict negative views about the individuals in the pictures. A mixture of a positive theme in the form of images should be used to neutralize the message in the research data compilation (Harwood, Robin & Scott, 236-267).
The parental consent is required for the children who are underage. The parental consent is also required for the usage of any data collected from the schools. This act is problematic in the previous conduction of similar researches. At the same time, all participants are supposed to be able to see themselves in the final research product thus at least one photograph should be taken on the participants.
The above research approach is important in determining the solution to the research problem upon the usage of tobacco amongst young people in the world today.

References
1. Harwood, Robin, and Scott A. Miller. “Ethics in Research.” Child Psychology: Development in a Changing Society. 5th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2008. 476. Print.
2. Kosmidou, Evdoxia. “Differences In Smoking Attitudes Of Adolescents And Young Adults.” Psychological Reports PR: 475. Print.
3. Lancet, The. “Tobacco Smoking: Why Start?” The Lancet (2001): 1038. Print.
4. Mccarthy, Michael. “Smoking Increases among Minority Teenagers in the USA.” The Lancet: 1414. Print.
5. Zones, Jane Sprague. “Smoking. Why Do We Start? Why Don’t We Stop?” Möbius: A Journal for Continuing Education Professionals in Health Sciences J. Contin. Educ. Health Prof.: 86-90. Print.