Written Components of a Research Designs and Research Conclusions
Written Components of a Research Design and Research Conclusions
Written Components of a Research Design and Research Conclusions
Research is the process undertaken when an individual or an organized group of people engage in a study aimed at collecting data from various relevant research fields as per the study. A research can be conducted on either subject matter that presently has not been considered on or on areas in which little or no much research work has been done so as to further the available knowledge.
Hypothesis /Research Question
Thesis or research questions are typically defined before going for field work to conduct the actual study. The significance of research issues in research can’t be underestimated as they guide on the type of data to collect and form the basis from which the objects of the research will be formulated. For instance, a sample research question would be; what resources are helpful to new and a minority drug abuse researchers? The hypothesis could either be null or alternative.
According to the study conducted in Haiti, the hypotheses were as follows:
1. There will be a positive relationship between anxiety and avoidance attachment and acculturative stress.
2. There will be an adverse relationship between anxiety and avoidance attachment and Quality of Life.
3. There will be a negative relationship between adaptive coping and acculturative stress and a positive relationship between adaptive coping and Quality of Life.
4. There will be a positive relationship between maladaptive coping and acculturative stress and a negative correlation between maladaptive coping and Quality of Life.
5. A negative correlation will exist between acculturative stress and Quality of Life.
The participants of the study were obtained by taking samples from the immigrants’ population. Samples of 155 immigrants were recruited from New York City and Miami metropolitan areas through contacts in churches, community organizations, and college campuses. The sample contained 85 men and 70 women. After data entry, analysis process was conducted, and it was observed that among those who had lived in the United States, only 12 had extreme cases variable years having spent time in the United States for more than 35 years. These were deleted from the analyzed because they were outliers on this important dimension central to the study (Graham et al., 2003).
The last sample consisted of 80 men and 63 women thus the total sample size N=143. All measures were written by approximately the sixth reading level, and participants were restricted to first-generation immigrants who were 18 years or older. The sample size of 100 was needed, and thus, the current sample size exceeded the recommended number criteria. The research design was under non-interventional design where the researcher just observed and analyzed researchable objects and situations hence indicating the correlation that exist on the various subjects of the research (Wade & Tavris, 2011).
The research design that was employed by the researchers was a Qualitative research as there was a systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena. The research used various models that were aimed at analyzing various variables such as copying and acculturative stress in determining the lifestyle maintained abroad. The method used for analysis was Correlation research design that involved the relationships between two or more variables. The variables were “attachment coping acculturative stress and Quality of Life” (Wade & Tavris, 2011). The study revealed that there was a relationship that existed between the variables.
Variables are characteristics or values normally used to determine if a change in one thing results in a change in the other. Variables can either be dependent or independent. Dependent variables are characteristics of a sample unit that is measured by the researcher while independent variable is variable that is manipulated by the researcher and has some effect on the dependent variable. According to the study, the Variables were: “attachment, coping, acculturative stress and quality of life” (Wade & Tavris, 2011).
Coping, in simple terms, is one’s innate excellent skill in addressing any issues that might arise during any activity. It involves the dynamic abilities to put continuous efforts in a quest to deal with personal challenges and problems that might result in prolonged stress hence affecting lifestyle. The researcher identified two main coping functions that were problem focused in attempting to solve or change a problem and emotion-focused attempt to regulate emotions. The extensive previous studies on the subject matter of research gave an indication that the process of copying has a close relationship with psychological adjustments. (Graham et al., 2003). According to the study, this is a despite advancements in the coping literature, put as
the baseline in the measurement of non-Hispanic white participants in the social-economic groupings in the society. According to the researcher, culture influences coping in three ways:
• Types of stress experienced
• Appraisal of the stressful event
• Choice of coping strategies
The extent to which copying took place was determined through previous research that apparently gave an indication that blacks were the most affected with copying when compared to their white counterparts when exposed stressors. Acculturative stress was another variable that impacted to adapting to a new culture. It was found out that late immigrant college students experienced more acculturative stress than their earlier counterparts. It was found that individuals who migrated before 12 years experienced less acculturative stress than did those who migrated after 12 years. Acculturative stress was linked with fatalistic thinking, decreased self-efficacy expectations, alcohol consumption, psychosomatic and mood problems, low social interests and suicidal ideation (Cirt.gcu.edu, 2015). The quality of Life is increasingly recognized as the accepted multidimensional definition in the cross-cultural and psychological literature and takes into account the individual’s subjective evaluation of Quality of Life in social, cultural, and environmental context.
This is the independent variable that was based on attachment theory that is highly pertinent in understanding how immigrants adjust to life stressors and cope with specific stress associated with acculturation. An understanding of attachment bonds is crucial in predicting adaptation throughout the life span including for minority and immigrant populations. Attachment working models function as inner structures in which people organize them handle stress and largely determine an individual’s vulnerability to stressful life events. There is a strong empirical research supporting the relationship between the quality of attachment bonds and the experience and expression of stress.
Reliability and validity
The validity of the study was to demonstrate the cause and effect relationship between dependent and independent variable. External validity of the finding allowed the results of the research to generalize the population. The author has provided strong evidence of reliability by broad and in-depth sourcing of the study. Use of experimental evidence and citations from reliable sources such as the World Health Organization clearly indicated the reliability of the information given on the variables interdependence (Graham et al., 2003).
Results and Conclusion
The findings of the study were the Acculturative stress psychological impact of adapting to a new culture. It found out those late immigrant college students experienced significantly more acculturative stress than did earlier immigrants college students. In the study, the people who shifted by the age of 12 years experienced less acculturative stress that did those who
migrated before the age of 12 years. The research also came into conclusion that t majority of individuals who lived in the first generation experienced greater levels of acculturative stress as compared to those lived in the later years. Thus, the trend of decreasing levels of acculturative stress continued to all later stages.
The results of the study also indicated an increase in the number of years spends while living in the United States hence showing an increase in the levels of anxiety. The adverse effects of the Quality of life and the copying process also indicated an increase, but cases of adaptation to the new way of way increased. Results showed that foreign-born populations were 32.5 million which represented 11.5% of total United States population. Results also showed that 420000 were permanent residents (Cirt.gcu.edu, 2015). The Haitians had obstacles back in their country including, high levels of illiteracy, chronic malnutrition, poverty, economic deprivation among others. Racism was experienced by the immigrant when they are in the United States as Haitians are black.
Ethical Issues in Research
An ethic in research is proper publication practices where one is required to drive credit where credit is due to. The researcher has well and systematically acknowledged the authors and their commendable work by proper citations and references to their articles. This should be maintained by all publications to maintain right research fields.
Faulty data-gathering procedures are unethical. The author proved that he/she kept ethics in the field by avoiding wrong data collections. Plagiarism is dishonest in any writing, and
research work as these is normally described as ‘theft’ of the original sources. The researcher maintained the ethic by actual quotations of the original authors work.
Graham, J., Naglieri, J., & Weiner, I. (2003). Handbook of psychology. New York: Wiley. Print.
Cirt.gcu.edu. (2015). Components of a Research Paper – Center for Innovation in Research and Teaching. Retrieved 18 December 2015, from https://cirt.gcu.edu/research/developmentresources/tutorials/researchpaper
Wade, C., & Tavris, C. (2011). Psychology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Print.