Relationship between critical thinking and ethics
A definition of critical thinking
Critical thinking can be defined as the use of cognitive skills and strategies that increase the chances or probability of a desired result or outcome. Critical thinking describes the thinking that is reasoned, purposeful and directed at a goal. This kind of thinking is involved in solving problems, inference formulation, calculating likelihoods as well as decision making where the thinker uses thoughtful and effective skills for various thinking tasks. Critical thinking skills are often referred as higher order cognitive skills (Sternberg et al., 6).
It can also be defined as a reasonable, reflective thinking focused on what one decides to believe or do (Nosi, 1) Critical thinking can be said to be a process that challenges a person to use thinking that is reflective, reasonable, rational in order to gather, interpret as well as evaluate information with a purpose of deriving a judgment (Learning Centre, 4). It can be defined as the art of analyzing as well as evaluating thinking with an aim of improving it (Learning center, 4).
The steps in the critical-thinking process
The steps of critical thinking in reading are identifying the line of reasoning, evaluating critically the line of reasoning, questioning the appearance of surface, identifying the evidence in the text, evaluating the evidence, identifying the conclusions of the writers and finally, evaluating whether the evidence supports the writer’s conclusion (Moon, 41).
Step 1 interpretation
This is making sense out of different inputs that include arguments, concepts, graphics, pictures, questions, problems and beliefs. Interpretation has other meanings to do with outputs (Appendix B, 1).
Step 2 Analysis
It is the act of breaking a complex construct and situation into parts to assist in understanding and it comes in many forms such as reading, viewing and listening to inputs such as relationships recognition, constraint listing and finding of ideas within a work. It is paired with skills such as evaluation and judgment to assist in deconstruction (Appendix B, 3).
Step 3 Evaluation
This is the skill of determining merit, efficacy, advantages, worth and validity of things such as evidence and assumptions (Appendix B, 5).
Step 4 inference
This is making decisions and deduction based on the available evidence at one’s disposal. It represents the result of critical thinking (Appendix B, 6)
Step 5 Explanation
At this stage, critical thinking process communicates all that has come before in the form of an organized thoughts and feelings in ways that show their thinking as well as their meaning. The thinking beyond the representation matters a lot at this stage (Appendix B, 8)
Stage 6 Meta-cognition for self-regulation
This skill is not linear step in critical thinking. It uses skills in analysis and evaluation to reasoning of a person’s inferential judgment to question, confirm or validate one’s reasoning (Appendix B, 9).
A summary of your blind spot and preferred ethical lens from the Ethical Lens Inventory
Ethical Lens Inventory identify the values that are more important to the individual and the challenges of those values. The inventory allows one to see clearly and resolve them amicably. It makes people respect each other’s point of view.
The responsibility Lens is my preferred, and it enables people to think thoroughly through a problem before they take actions. It considers all options leading to stronger decision-making the strategy. It has a weakness of over analyzing to find a solution that makes it be a time-consuming thing. It is also overwhelming to choose from many options.
It takes control of the situation thereby protecting the rights of everyone and maintaining equality to everyone (Baird & Warnell, 2).
The ethical Lens inventory can defined as an instrument that is used for assisting students to identify commitments they consider to be core in their studies. Autonomy and Equality specifies the time when the individual is privileged to choose an action that he/she can personally take as well as when the criteria for the ethical action is imposed by the community on these individuals. The rationality and sensibility continuum gives the content of ethical principle that is applied and the circumstances under which flexibility in this application is allowed. It assists students to choose their preferred lens that will enable them view ethical issues and determine the materials to be included in these instruments to help the learners realize their ethical strengths as well as their blind spots. The students can comprehend other people’s ethi¬cal perspectives that will enable them to develop strategies used for working with those who have different ethical priorities. It teaches students the way to advocate for people without voice and power that seems to be consistent with social teaching values (Baird & Warnell, 2).
An explanation of how your personal ethics influences your decision-making
Personal values determine a person’s goal as well as outcomes in his/her life. The goals that an individual choose are an outer expression of a person’s personal values. A person’s value determines the way they perceive a situation. The evaluation of a decision is dependent on the values as well as the interests of a person evaluating the decision. The decision makers make use of self-interest and materialistic approach to making decisions that benefit their personal interest (Melgaco, n.p).
The decision may also be based on the real number of people who have benefited by considering the result of a decision they took as a method chosen to evaluate its morality. People who know the effect of their unethical behavior tend to be the ethical decision makers. Unintentional conducts often interfere with the ability of an individual to judge well and make a decision that is fair. The unconscious factors such as in-group favoritism and conflict of interest intervene and lead to biased decision-making. Unconscious attitudes make the judgment of a person to be wrong (Melgaco, n.p).
An explanation of how ethics applies to professional and societal responsibilities
Professional ethics is standards used to make decisions in the workplace, and they are used by managers when the want to clarify decision-making in cases where there are gray areas relating to the matter on hand. Ethics prevents the professionals from taking advantage of junior employees in an organization. Social responsibility is one aspect of the overall discipline of business ethics. The business ethics help to cultivate ethical practices in the society in the natural environment (McNamara, n.p).
Socially responsible employees make decisions that improve the welfare of the people around them. Managers perform business as well as social audits to get an overall picture of the employees’ performance and it extends beyond the work place because people develop their communities and neighborhoods for them to be regarded as socially responsible. Companies promote professional ethics by specifying a clear code of conduct in the handbook of the company (McNamara, n.p).
“Appendix B: Detailed Definitions of the Critical Thinking Process Framework.” Web. 11 June 2015
Baird, Catharyn A., and Jessica McManus Warnel. “Reinforcing students’ core
ethical commitments through emphasis of catholic social thought.” Web. 11 June 2015.
Centre., Learning. “Orientation Lecture Series: Learning to Learn: Developing Critical Thinking Skills.” The University of Sydney Learning Centre. The University of Sydney. Web. 11 June 2015.
Melgaco, Deo. “The Impact of Ethics on Decision Making.” Res Ipsa Loquitor. 13 Dec. 2004. Web. 11 June 2015.
McNamara, Carter. “Business Ethics and Social Responsibility.” Free Management Library. Authenticity Consulting. Web. 11 June 2015.
Nosi, Mo. “What Is Critical Thinking?” 22 Dec. 2010. Web. 11 June 2015.
Paul, Dr. Richard, and Dr. Linda Elder. “The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools.” The Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2006. Web. 11 June 2015.
Moon, Jennifer. Critical Thinking: An Exploration of Theory and Practice. Routledge, 12. 41. Print.
Sternberg, Robert J., Henry L. Roediger III, and Diane F Halpern. Critical Thinking in Psychology. Revised ed. Cambridge UP, 2007. 6. Print.