Working in Modern Society
Working in modern: society
Individual in the society are affected by work as a result of bureaucratic arrangements in the workplace. Individual’s value at workplace seems to be diminished, by interchanging their contributions (Hodson&Sullivan, 2011). Individuals feel that the detachment has alienated them from their workplace contribution; they are kept busy and doesn’t get time with co-workers. Work also gives workers a chance for self-fulfillment, their accomplishment leads to the production of goods that are enjoyed by the society.
The society is affected by work where fragmented urban society replaces rural society sense of commonality. In urban area people advocate for self-interests and the aspects of a community like sharing is not common(Hodson&Sullivan, 2011). In urban areas, people are interdependent in accomplishing meeting their varied interests. From my experience, the ideas of Carl Max on lineation and exploitation of workers is real. Workplaces where the head of bureaucracies is capitalist, they ensure that workers spend most of their time working on mingier wages. The over working is what is considered alienation for people, who barely find time for themselves and their societies. Max web in his bureaucratic theory rationality, suggested that modern workplace and its systems breaks previously high held norms like unity in society.
In chapter one, Ehrenreich has just moved to Florida, she is desperate for a job and get a waitressing job. She earns petite to keep up with her bills. She depends on tips from generous customers to supplement her inadequate salary(Ehrenreich, 2002). Managers at her workplace don’t work, meaning that they don’t understand what workers have to experience to ensure colossal profits. They keep abusing them and at one time she was shouted at and decided to quit her job. From the experience, we realize that those at the top or a company, all they care is making more profits and workers welfare is not valued.
In the second chapter she has moved to Maine, she was hoping that in this region due to inadequate labor supply there would be a higher wage. She realized that wages from Previous workplace region was not any different. During her training sessions via a video, she realized that she was paid only $6 per hour while the merry maids company kept the rest out of $25 they charged clients(Ehrenreich, 2002). All workplaces have a common characteristic of being profits oriented while Works welfare is not considered.
Ehrenreich is concerned with the class strata because she gets to compare herself with the executive class in the places she was waitressing. She is concerned with how managers care about making more profits without valuing the welfares of their workers(Ehrenreich, 2002). She detests the managerial and their assistants’ class for their self-centeredness.
The trade that is based on service, for instance, tourism and hospitality is a service trade that boosts economies across the world. Manufacturing industries was the greatest American employer, but later the importation of finished goods at a relatively cheap price from China and across the globe was realized. Manufacturing stopped and assembled or importing finished goods became the new system of trading. Currently healthcare industry and other social services industries are the greatest employers. Consequently, more products have been available than ever but many persons have lost their jobs. Machines are doing the employment, and the unemployment rate is alarming.
Trade unions were common movements in capitalistic economies. In America workers were being exploited by their employers, the union was an instrument to air their voices in collective to defend their welfares. The unions advocated for increased wage, better working condition, and reasonable working hours. Child labor was rampant and trade unions had the responsibility to stop it. Workers were injured and never given medical attention. The industries they served never compensated their injuries, and the trade union had to ensure that workers healthcare was prioritized. Once long-serving employee were retired there were no benefits for them(Ashenfelter & Johnson, 1969). The union was to push for awarding of retirement benefits to ensure workers are financially stable after their term of service was expired. All those targets have been met, and that is whey currently workers in America are enjoyed working freedom at relatively better pay.
Most employees from various professions are subjected to tight institutional policies that demand their attention, leaving no time for themselves and their families (Perlow, 1995). With current trends of increasing unemployment, most workers are forced to stick to the institutions policies at the expense of caring for their children and loved ones. Many parents are considered bad parents for they allocate little time for their children but the truth of the matter is that company policies are demanding. Caregivers are expected to respond to workplace emergencies any time including when they are supposed to be on their leave. From studies, those who earn less than $25000 have flexible time to care for their families as compared to those employees earning over $70,000 per year (Rothschild & Whitt, 1989). Those high earners are executives, expected to work around the clock to shield the company or institution from incurring losses. Work shifting have been recommended to manage the problem, and balance employees’ time for work and family affairs.
The advent of technology has been signified by tremendous changes in how business is conducted across the world. Production of goods in high quality and volume can be attributed to the application of technology. Machines don’t require medical attendance nor a break but produce goods faster than human beings saving on capital and maximizing profits. Unemployment has been rampant with replacement of people with more efficient machines of technology. Messengers in offices are required on limited opportunities since computers can deliver messages faster to many destinations in a short span. Most of the firms in America both in manufacturing and service industry, have switched to the application of technology in service delivery.
Professionalism is the process by which any form of trade is converted into a conventional profession like teaching. Professionalism achieved by setting up criteria for qualifying participants in the business (Vollmer & Mills, 1966). It comes along with the establishment of a body that ensure the laid codes of conduct are upheld. Different jobs have different codes of judging professionalism. A nurse is judged differently from a teacher; various codes of professionalism guide them. For instance, it is professional for teachers not to engage in relationships with their student. The teacher –student relationship is unethical and hinders teacher and student performance at their designated capacities.
The conflict perspective by the American socialist Wright Mills, suggest that people in a profession are not motivated by promoting the good of all people, but rather for the benefit of the profession and the professional(Gobster & Hull, 2000). Professionals are focused on gaining access to scarce resources like power and wealth. In the conflict perspective, professionals avail goods and resources to those with resources and everyone in the society. Works achieve self-fulfillment by doing what they are entitled to do within their profession.
In chapter 15 globalization is characterized by a large multinational corporation with better-paying offersfamilies (Hodson&Sullivan, 2011).The most provocative idea presented, is that workers have no job security and may lose their jobs any time. Work in globalized corporations with diversified production means alienates its worker for themselves and their families(Hodson&Sullivan, 2011). More time is required to balance the better payment privilege. In chapter 16, colonization was pioneered by Britain followed by other nations from Europe was meant to boost her economics status but this ended after the Second World War.
Globalization is signified by increased interconnectedness via trade and communication across the globe, making national borders porous for access to goods and persons(Amin &Thrift, 1995). People from poor economic nations or regions tend to move to developed regions to venture profitable opportunities. The immigration could be legal where an individual follows the procedures and illegal when the porous borders are used.
Innovation is characterized by the use of microprocessors technologies to keep up with global competition(z Gallouj, 2002). At my workplace, a person is expected to be computer literate to fit in the system. Post bureaucracies in the workplaces utilize technological innovation that requires less human effort in the production of goods and services for this reason people have lost their jobs(Hodson&Sullivan, 2011). Those who remain are the ones needed to use or monitor the machines while working.
Ashenfelter, O., & Johnson, G. E. (1969). Bargaining theory, trade unions, and industrial strike activity. The American Economic Review, 35-49.
Amin, A., & Thrift, N. (1995). Globalization, institutions, and regional development in Europe. Oxford University Press.
Ehrenreich, B. (2002). Nickel and Dimed: Undercover in low-wage America.
Gobster, P. H., & Hull, R. B. (2000). Restoring nature: perspectives from the social sciencesand humanities. Island Press.
Hodson, R., & Sullivan, T. A. (2011). The social organization of work. Cengage Learning.
Perlow, L. A. (1995). Putting the work back into work/family. Group & Organization Management, 20(2), 227-239.
Rothschild, J., & Whitt, J. A. (1989). The cooperative workplace: Potentials and dilemmas of organisational democracy and participation. CUP Archive.
Vollmer, H. M., & Mills, D. L. (1966). Professionalization. STANFORD RESEARCH INSTMENLO PARK CA.
Z Gallouj, F. (2002). Innovation in the service economy: the new wealth of nations. Edward Elgar Publishing.