theory of mind and autism

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theory of mind and autism

Category: Research Paper

Subcategory: Psychology

Level: College

Pages: 10

Words: 2750

Theory of Mind and Autism
Student’s Name
Institution Affiliation
ABSTRACT
Insufficient time, since the situation was initially branded in 1943, a variety of concepts, has been put forward to describe the appearance, servicing, and treatment of autism. There is often debate about this place, as different paradigms often don’t agree about the etiology of autism and its following treatment. This document reviews and analyzes conceptualizations of autism in accordance with the psychoanalytic and intellectual paradigms, discovering individual concepts within these designs such as inadequate primary coherence, concept of thoughts, professional operate autistic recognition, pushes and connection in autism, and fridge mom theory. The intellectual and psychoanalytic designs techniques to treatment and their following efficiency are also analyzed, and concern is given to disputes in the processing of this persistent developing problem. It is determined in accordance with the available literary works that the psychodynamic design focuses on the appearance and causes of autism, whereas the intellectual model is more involved with the servicing of the problem and its intellectual repercussions and signs, while neither gives adequate concern to its treatment.
Introduction
Empathy has been described as they generate to recognize and react appropriately to feelings and psychological declares in others. It performs an important part in romantic connections and allows an individual to appear sensible of an estimate the behavior of another. Empathy includes both the capability to acknowledge and comprehend feelings in others as well as an active reaction to another’s psychological condition, respectively intellectual and psychological empathy.
Autism variety circumstances include understanding failures and are classified by interaction and public complications as well as recurring behaviors or limited passions. Concern malfunction in autism has been confirmed via research observing a concept of mind incapacity in kids with autism. That is, those people with autism have problems studying the values and objectives of others. Theory of Mind is often used interchangeably with intellectual empathy, viewpoint taking and ‘mentalizing’. However, as mentioned above, understanding has long been described as a multifactorial build such as not only the reflection of another’s psychological condition but also an active reaction.
Autism is a persistent developing problem classified by failures in public behavior and interaction and uncommon and limited, recurring actions (APA, 2000). Since Kanner first branded and described the situation in 1943, there has been a variety of efforts to explain this problem. Two essential paradigms that have created efforts are the intellectual and the psychodynamic model. This document will examine and seriously assess the participation that these designs have set up to the knowing of the appearance, servicing, and treatment of autism.

The Cognitive Model and Autism
Since its rise to popularity in recent decades, the intellectual design has provided significantly to the knowing of autism. Autism is classified not only by public failures but also by failures in intelligent management, with most autistic kids having problems in at least one place of intellectual performing (Szelag et al., 2004). Cognitive signs and public signs may overlap and be relevant to one another; the public lack seen in autism is proportional to the level of general intellectual operated. Cognitive “scripts” of particular activities and the regular procedures around them have been discovered to be lacking in autism, especially with regards to programs for public workouts, which may concern for a variety of the public failures noticed.
The most typical perspective of autism is that it is mainly a lack of interaction capabilities, with failures such as stereotyped discussions, echolia, and a deficiency of knowledge of metaphors and non-verbal behavior. Autistic people are inadequate at keeping in mind spoken sounds, which may describe the limited interest to comments and the lack of capability to infer psychological significance from comments. Autistic people also have trouble identifying mental expression. Autistic kids also have irregular neurological feedback, in particular developing different neurological methods, and considering and passions are firm, with inadequate conceptual thinking.
Cognitive growth in autism
A variety of computational designs of autism has been developed to describe the procedures involved in the irregular intellectual growth of autism. Such models have been used to recommend that only one mental incapacity beginning in life can cause to an array of issues along the intellectual developing process, eventually leading to the collection of intellectual failures known as autism. Concentrating on the intellectual growing process of autism can cause to a greater understanding with regards to causes and prospective treatment, as a variety of intellectual factors has been discovered to estimate a long-term outcome. It has been recommended that autism is a mixture of a variety of intellectual problems. However, there are three primary mental concepts of autism which will be analyzed in this paper; inadequate central coherence, lacking the concept of thoughts, and professional malfunction.
Central coherence
The inadequate primary integration concept of autism indicates that signs seen in autism are due to a style of knowledge known as inadequate central consistency. This represents a limited capability to comprehend the perspective in which activities occur, and lack of ability to see the “big picture.” It is the outcome in autistic people taking things mainly, such as not being able to comprehend metaphors or sarcasm. Computational designs have used the concepts of inadequate primary coherence to concern for both the inappropriate generalization and inadequate perspective handling seen in autism. The weak central sense seems to be an individual aspect in autistic knowledge. However, it may not be relevant to the behavioral signs of the problem as inadequate primary coherence is not appropriate to either public proficiency or harshness of signs.
Theory of mind
“Theory of mind” represents the capability to infer what others are considering so that it is possible to estimate their behavior (Happé, 1999). Baron-Cohen (1995) initially recommended that autistic people do not have this essential aspect of public knowledge. They cannot tell what others are considering, hence the reason they do not react to facial expression or modulation of voice. According to Baron-Cohen (1995), a deficiency of a concept of thoughts is the primary intellectual component of autism and can describe a variety of the visible public inadequacies in autism, such as low levels of public eye contact. This deficiency of a concept of thoughts has been discovered continually in autism and has been recommended to be essential in the cause of the problem. However, others have recommended that it does not concern for all of the failures noticed. Happé et al. (2001) claim that the concept of thoughts matter of autism is useful in describing many of the public and interaction failures noticed. However, it cannot concern for other signs such as recurring behaviors and limitation of passions. Furthermore there is proof that a deficiency of a concept of thoughts cannot describe all of the lack public behavior in autism; for example it has been proven that coaching to enhance concept of ideas does not improve general capabilities. Thus, it may be that idea of ideas is a critical facet in the intellectual factors of autism; however, it is unlikely to concern for the variety of signs associated with the problem.
Executive function
Ozonoff et al. (1991, 1994) first recommended the professional malfunction design for autism. “Executive function” represents the complicated intellectual capabilities used to management action and motor coordination, in particular in uncommon circumstances. Included in this, therefore, is planning behavior, monitoring behavior, using working storage, and suppressing automatic responses. This design has been used to describe efficiently a variety of signs, in particular, such professional incapacity can concern for the recurring and limited behavior seen in autistic kids. Cognitive moving, an important aspect of professional operate, has been discovered to estimate inadequate public capabilities in maturity and is the only aspect that can expect improved general intellect in autistic people. However, while professional malfunction can describe individual failures, it cannot concern for the places of knowledge that are unchanged or superior.
Cognitive treatment
Cognitive accounts of autism have cause to a variety of intellectual techniques to its treatment. A variety tries to enhance the neurological irregularities in autistic kids, with essential treatment being hearing incorporation coaching those efforts to reduce delicate hearing. This has been recommended to enhance a variety of intellectual failures such as storage and terminology understanding, though others only support very limited or no benefits. Due to the characteristics of autism Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) has not been considered to be appropriate, however proof indicates that an alteration of CBT techniques may be useful for the treatment of autism. A variety of factors of intellectual performing such as mental moving and primary coherence have been discovered to estimate long-term outcome, yet have not been used to treatment programs despite having significant perspective. Enhancing public performing is one of essential objectives with regards to the treatment of autism; while individual therapies have been discovered to have a positive impact on public capabilities (Howlin, 1997). Those using intellectual concepts have been less efficient. Because factors of knowledge vary significantly between people, a just intellectual strategy to all may be ineffective.
Psychoanalysis and Autism
According to (Kanner 1943, psychoanalysis has provided to knowing the appearance, servicing, and treatment of autism. However, psychoanalyst’s take autism as a problem in which the growth of positive feelings and a sense of care for other people is changed. Autism is described through psychoanalytic concepts such as a structural appearance of the self, internalization, recognition, and introjections. Autism can be conceptualized through item interaction concept as the extending of a level in normal growth where objects interaction features in understanding. Psychoanalytic details concentrate less on the intellectual signs and more on the public failures noticed. Autism varies from other child years psychological problems as there is an important disconnection from the outside globe, and there are two primary psychoanalytic details for this aspect of autism. One is that the problem is a regression to an earlier level of development; another holds that autistic behavior is a defense procedure in reaction to extremely traumatic situations.
There is a variety of sources of proof that support psychoanalytic opinions of autism. Early psychoanalysts considered that the experience of autistic kids performed an aspect in the pathology, and a variety of research have recommended that autistic kids have a qualitatively different experience in psychoanalytic conditions, with issues in item interaction and other factors of ego growth, which are accountable for the public irregularities seen in the situation. Many beginning psychoanalysts considered that autism is psychogenic, and this can still be discovered in such techniques nowadays.
Autistic identification
It has been recommended that the systems of public involvement, which cause to recognition, are essential in autistic growth. Meltzer (1975) designed a model of autism depending on three primary ideas: the taking apart of the ego, sticky recognition, and the bio-dimensionality of item interaction. The taking apart of the ego represents the idea that autistic kids divided their ego across the different feelings so that they can never properly understand the globe around them, and all emotions are mixed. The dimensionality of item interaction represents how the autistic kid pertains to libidinal things, with a lack of capability to see beyond the outer lining place of things. These associates in biodimensionality whereby the self-recognizes with only the outer lining area of things, which outcomes in the problems of describing thoughts. (Tustin 1977) In the same way described autism with regards to a baby having a worry of a discontinuity between the outside and the body globe. The child defends itself from this anxiety by building the impression that is mixed as one with the outside globe.
Drives and autism
Freud’s original concepts of pushes have been especially significant in psychodynamic details of the causes of autism. Adhesive recognition is often seen in autism and outcomes from the transfer of power from the loss of life generate and the sexual interest when these pushes are being defused. Thus autism can be considered as the diffusion of forces, in particular, the loss of life generate. The aspect of the sexual interest in autism with regards to the distribution of power has been ignored, but it may describe the trend of adhesiveness and auto-sensuality seen in autism. There is a deficiency of oneness with regards to the incorporation of the self, and there is a deficiency of projector screen in autistic kids.
Refrigerator mom theory
Bettelheim recommended that autism is caused by “refrigerator” mothers; autism is a defense procedure against cold, emotionless, and separated moms. Autistic kids are been raised in unstimulating and uncaring homes during the beginning of growth where terminology and public capabilities usually develop. Mothers do not communicate with their kids enough, and this is the actual cause of autism. A variety of psychoanalysts agrees with this conceptualization, declaring that issues in the behavior of moms to their kids are accountable for autistic behavior. Bettelheim stated that using this concept he was able to treat 85% of his autistic sufferers; however, this has been consequently proven to be incorrect. Despite no trial research to provide proof for the fridge mom concept of autism, a variety of psychoanalysts, keep following these ideas.
Attachment
The importance of connection to autism has been mentioned since the first information about the problem by (Kanner 1943) who referred to the lack of capability to form psychological passion with others. The DSM-III created the difference between child year’s schizophrenia and autism with regards to connection behavior (APA, 2000). Rutgers et al. (2004) claim that a deficiency of beginning and secure connection outcomes in the public solitude seen in autism. Although autistic kids show connection behaviors, they are significantly less safely connected and cannot be motivated by their care provider. Such disruptions in the mother-daughter connection have been proven to have severe and long-lasting effects, and culturally separated apes act in such a similar way to autistic kids that it has been recommended that autism is a consequence of public solitude from mother and father (Harlow & McKinney, 1971). However, variations in connection behavior in autism have been refuted by a variety of research and the causality characteristics of any connection are uncertain.
Psychoanalytic treatment
Despite a variety of arguments, psychoanalytic concepts keep being used to the treatment of autism. Psychodynamic treatments concentrate on the worker-child connection, rather than straight attempting to generate behavioral change (Helm, 1976), and the importance of a close experience between the specialist and kid is pressured. Holding treatment focuses on the autistic child’s connection with the mom, with a physical passion being motivated. The fridge mom concept of autism has been particular essential in impacting treatments, and in the 1950’s and 60’s psychoanalytic play treatment depending on these concepts was the most typical treatment used for autism (Howlin, 1997). It has been recommended that intense psychoanalytic psychological treatment can enhance autistic children’s long-term diagnosis, but that this is often ignored and that using counter-transference is especially useful in improving diagnosis. However others claim that the fault that is put on mother and father and the deficiency of objectives and structure can intensify behavior in autistic kids.
Controversies in Treatment
Regardless of the strategy used, whether autism can be handled at all is questionable. Autism has lengthy been seen as a problem with long term deaths, with such a severe diagnosis to the extent that it has been considered to be terminal. Autism has been described for a lengthy period of a problem for which the cause is uncertain, and treatment even less clear. The American Academia of Child and Teenage Psychiatry’s formal policy is that “it now appears that the effectiveness of psychological treatment in autism is very limited.” Psychotherapy for autism may not be efficient regardless of whether the intellectual or psychodynamic strategy is used. As with all therapies for autism, neither approach has received an adequate scientific study of its efficiency (Howlin, 1997).
Conclusion
The psychodynamic and intellectual designs have both been used to describe the appearance and servicing of autism and tried consequently to recommend therapies. These concepts concentrate on very different factors of autistic behavior, with the intellectual design working on failures in places such as concept of thoughts and professional operate, while the psychodynamic design focuses mainly on parent connections and childhood. It seems that the psychodynamic design focuses on the appearance and causes of autism, whereas the intellectual model is more involved with the servicing of the problem and its intellectual repercussions and signs. Neither gives much interest to its treatment though this may be primarily due to the previously mentioned supposition that autism is terminal. It has been recommended that the intellectual concern of autism is the most precise reflection of the problem and that psychodynamic details concentrate too intensely on particular factors of the disorder.
However, this critique could work both ways. Both psychodynamic and intellectual designs tend to describe autism with regards to only one unitary lack bookkeeping for all of the noticed signs. However there is inadequate proof to recommend that autism is caused by a unitary lack, and it may be that no individual concept or strategy can effectively concern for the wide-ranging signs of the problem (Szelag et al., 2004). This author considers that the intellectual design provides a more precise care of the appearance and servicing of autism, though this may primarily appear to be the case due to the problems in examining psychodynamic conceptualizations of this problem. This document indicates that the intellectual design needs to concentrate on mixtures of mental signs, and begin to move away from the lack unitary concepts that control the model nowadays. In conditions of the treatment, though the two designs analyzed here recommend very different therapies, it seems that neither can treat autism, though there is more proof at present to suggest that intellectual techniques have the greatest perspective to enhance the diagnosis of autistic children.
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