The Rise of Islam.
The Rise of Islam
1. The five pillars of Islam.
The following are the five pillars demanded of every Muslim individual.
The profession of faith or Shahada. It involves narrating the creed that states that there is only one God.
The second pillar is the prayer that in the Arabic language is referred to as salat. Every individual who practices the Islamic religion is expected to pray five times a day while facing Mecca.
Charity or Zakat is the third pillar. Muslims are supposed to share a portion of their wealth with the less fortunate in the society.
The fourth pillar is fasting that is referred to as Siyan. During the holy month of Ramadhan, Muslims go without food and drinks during the daylight.
The fifth pillar is Hajj. Any Muslim individual who is of sound mind and fit body is required to make at least one pilgrimage to Mecca.
2. A. Describe the character of Muhammad.
Muhammad was honest, reliable and could be trusted that is why he was referred to as al-Ameen by visitors and Makkans.
Muhammad was kind because he always helped the needy.
Muhammad loved peace.
B. Who was Khadijah? Explain her conversion.
Khadijah was a wealthy merchant woman forty years old who had had lost two of her husbands. She offered Muhammad a job to take some commodities for trade in Syria. She proposed to Muhammad and he accepted the offer, together they had two sons and four daughters. She supported Muhammad during all trying times. She died at the age of sixty-five.
Khadijah was the first person to become a Muslim, and this happened after Muhammad’s encounter with Jibril by accepting Jibril’s revelation as truth. She consulted Waraqa about Muhammad’s encounter, and it was revealed that he was the prophet.
3. A. What did Jibril (Gabriel) give to Muhammad?
For over two decades, Jibril appeared and revealed the Ayat to Muhammad, which are verses that made up the Qur’ an.
B. What was the Hijra and when did it occur?
Hijra was the Islamic migration and it signifies the start of the Islamic calendar. It happened in 622CE when an assassination for Prophet Muhammad was planned but angel Jibril gave him a revelation of the Quraish plan, and he escaped. Muslims, who were able-bodied, began moving to Medinah where Prophet Muhammad had gone, and they left behind their possessions and properties.
4 Explain A.H. (622). Is this calendar lunar or solar?
The Islam calendar is a lunar calendar because it purely relies on the sightings of the moon. Adjustments are made at times so that it coincides with the solar calendar, but it relies on moon sightings.
5. What year is it in Islam now?
The year is 1437 A.H.
6. A. How do the Isra and Mir’aj differ?
The Isra and Miraj are journeys taken by Prophet Muhammad in 621. In the Isra journey, Muhammad travels to Burqa where he presides over a prayer with other prophets but in the Miraj journey he goes to heaven through ascension, and he has a conversation with God and he is given a message for the other believers regarding prayer.
B. How did Moses help Muhammad?
God had instructed Prophet Muhammad that people should pray fifty times in a day, but Moses told him that was so much, so he advised Muhammad to ask God to reduce the number of prayers in a day. God then cut the times of prayer to be five in a day.
7. Contrast Islamic with Christian views about Jesus.
Christians believe in God, the Son and the Holy Spirit which is called the Trinity, whereas the Islamic religion believes in only one Supreme Being and that is God.
Christians believe that Jesus was the son of God but in Islam God did neither have a son nor was God fathered, and nothing can be likened to God.
Christians believe that Jesus was crucified on the cross and died for their sins, and he later arose from the dead, but Muslims do not believe that Jesus was neither killed nor did he resurrect.
8-9. Define the following:
8. A. Caliph.
A caliph is an individual who is considered to have succeeded Prophet Muhammad either religiously or politically, and that person presides over the entire Muslim community.
B. List and date the first four caliphs.
The first caliph was the Rashidun Caliphate that was in existence between the year 632 and 661.
The second caliph was the Umayyad Caliphate that was present between 661 and 750.
The third caliph was the Abbasid Caliphate of between 750 and 1258 and between 1261 and 1517.
The fourth caliph was the Ottoman Caliphate of between 1517 and 1924.
9 Describe in a few sentences each.
The Shi’ites which stands for the party of Ali is made up the second largest group of Muslim faithful in the world. This Islam group arose from a political party that supported Prophet Muhammad’s cousin, Ali, to succeed Muhamad.
B. UmayyadsUmayyad was the other caliphate that was established post-Muhammad’s death. It was founded by the governor of Syria called Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan in 661CE.
Abbasids made up the third caliphate that existed between 566CE and 653CE. They originated from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, who was Muhammad’s uncle.
10. A. When was Baghdad by commissioned and by whom?
Baghdad was commissioned on July 30th in the year 762 by the caliph Al-Mansur.
B. What was the purpose of the new city?
The aim of the town was to replace Harran as the head of caliphs due to its favorable location.
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