Select theoretical concepts
German Forces and the British Army memoirs
World War one resulted in a collection of various war books and novels. Tragically, insightful work based on the subject of troopers’ Encounters of the World War 1 intended to embrace the writing to frustration basing on the illustrative of the perspectives of most fighters who battled in the prevailing war. On the other hand, war journals speak to a wide variety of perspectives; a few officers delighted in the on-going war that some of the soldiers hated it, however, most of this soldiers were not able to choose how they felt about the prevailing. This paper contains selected theoretical concepts obtained from reading a various autobiography, just and unjust wars and other supplemental reading. The paper also contains a comparison and contrast of some aspect of war memoirs from different wars. (Stone, 2009)
At the beginning of world war one, the use of traditional and modern firearms and machines was utilized. It leads to very deadly conflicts but paved way political reforms and revolutions it various nations that were involved. During the war, the great economic powers were drawn into the struggle, with each having its unique interests.
Over time, the principles of war to establish different forms of warfare’s other besides conventional warfare was subjected to very active debates. With regards to doctrine, the British and US war principles had a limit in conflict spectrum. According to Falwell, argued that the principles of war should remain unchanged, he attribute his argument to the campaign that was held against the Spaniards in Cuba, he too did apply the concept in Philippians and Manchuria during the Russo- Japanese War.
The U.S army managed to expose the difference between the Conventional war and the small wars. However, the methods of small war had been borrowed from the British army. Callwell, a very prominent author Published influential books about small wars that had become very popular in the USA. The wars were therefore described as callwell describe the success of small wars and disputed the fact that the strategy of annihilation could not effect this success. Callwell explained that there could not be there any form of energy or skill that could contribute into n enemy engaging into risk engagement.
In the memoirs of the world war two, George M. Frasers, the writer of the Flashman novels, was involved in the division of the Indian in the 14th army during the siege of the Meiktila and the struggle for Pyawbwe. The author goes ahead to explain the how the solder in the close kit firm struggled for success and went through various challenges in the process of war. They lost their team members and loved ones, and all they had to do is simply mourn them and keep making relevant efforts that could help them to survive from day to day. On the other hand, a newspaper writer who had gone to Russia expressed overwhelming reports about the Germany troops who were in horrible conditions as they returned from war.
Many of the soldiers had lost their limbs, some parts of their body like the fingers, eyes, nose, fingers, and sexual organs had been ripped off. Moreover, some had lost their hair that was a clear indication of human torture by their opponents. The journalist went ahead to publish even what hath seen in an Autobiographical Novel. The brutality of war is also exposed by the book, “down to earth” by E.B. Sledge. The book installs in a reader’s mind, the merciless events that took place during the world war two. More than 100 soldiers had died, hence the big blow to company K, some went missing, and some were injured in the process of fighting for the Peleliu island. (Patterson & Clifford, 2012)
There existed support assurance between the officers in the way the folks in the territory termed Germans as their liberators in the world war one. Farmers frequently helped German army by providing for them food and beverage; this was very different with the French workers who once in a while accomplished for their liberators. The German soldiers possessed no tricks, in any case, that they battled the Romanians for a unique superb-ness of Germany army where a more critical yet firm discipline was adopted. Jünger trusted that, a great officer was in charge of the up keeping of spirit, and Carossa’s encounters appeared to manage out this attestation. Carossa stated cases when Germany officers felt obliged and to disregard rebellious conduct; sometimes, on the other hand, a firm train was crucial (Jennifer, 2011).
During the world war one, soldiers had the worst of experiences; they went through brutal forms of warfare that had been known. Thousands of soldiers were sent separated from their families, some for months and others for years and went through serious emotional and physical stress during the fights. The soldiers also underwent forced labor as a result of technological developments. This was around the 19th century, and the soldiers and laborers had to dig holes for placement of these heavy machine guns and could also accommodate in the form of the shell for the soldiers during the war so that they could prevent them from the fire from their opponents. Biohazards were also developed during this time and, unfortunately, this soldiers had to get exposed to this deadly gasses. Carrying these tanks was also not easy for the soldiers and laborers.
On the other hand, the Germany troop in the Second World War was bigger consisting of over 40,000 men. The authors, Knappe, who almost became a major in the battle, presented a report that explained that units in Berlin were bigger, in fact, three times the troops that the Waffen SS. The defense of the city was also well installed. It consisted of the outer ring that was roughly 60 miles in perimeter which extended to the outskirts of the city. Trenches and numerous roadblocks were also put in place. The ring at the center had a perimeter of around 25 miles and utilized the obstacles that had existed earlier. The government buildings were placed at the core of the defensive structures. The government also installed three defensive rings, and as described above, the defense of Berlin layer out was better off in the world war two, compared to the defense layout of the world war one. (Lefferts & Wall, 1926)
The perspective of the proceeding war was a brutal case, according to Junger as he didn’t wait to portray horrific injuries through the extraordinary point of interest. Dissimilar to other novel authors, be that as it may, he didn’t feel disgusted at the brutality of war ongoing. To him, the war was essentially an advantageous affair that would leave fighters to have an encouraging legacy of the friends made, and lessons learned: Time was just reinforcing the belief that the war was happening, and for all its danger, was a unique educating to the heart. He claimed that the German officers battled with undiminished resolve at any cost of the war regardless of the largely United prevalence in material and men. He trusted that the Germans could do as such on account of their confidence in the significance of their immovable loyalty and commitment to the commitment
The soldiers had overwhelming experiences even after the war began. They spent their time leaving outside for days or even weeks. They went through very difficult times has they experienced cold, were rained on, struck by the wind and could not prevent themselves from the hot sun during summer. The scaring sounds of both friendly and enemy gun shots were also very disturbing. This is best presented in the book wrote by an Italian Officer, Emilio Lussu, he explained that when there were no attacks, then there was no war too, but hard work. Life becomes even more challenging with the order to attack.
The soldiers had to expose themselves from the trenches with heavy weapons and equipment. This was very risky for the soldiers as they had to move through many networks of barbed wire faces as they kept down to the ground to avoid fire from the enemies. In some occasions their tactics failed, and most of the soldiers lost their lives on the battlefields and could only be buried if a safe break from the fight was obtained. The injured, if rescued could take to nearby local quality hospitals for medical attention. (Wishon, 2013)
Most authors have described the experiences of participants of the world war one. It is indicated that over 60 million soldiers from various parts of the world participated in the war. They varied from Iraq to France, The Pacific Ocean to the North Sea and from China to Greece. This group experiences a wide range of types of combat both political conditions and modern technologies had a great impact on world war one and made a unique and overwhelming event.
German officers occasionally killed British fighters endeavoring to yield to surrender. They were also apprehensive, regardless of the French fighter counter sentiment numerous German patriots, to commendation the French civilian people for the kindness they possessed; also all officers ought to maintain the French demonstration of internationality of the heart. He encountered a four-year period of battling. However, most German and British officers used considerably little energy in the front line. Remarque only spent a sum of 2 months in or close to this front line. A Roumanian writer covered three months of the creator’s encounters as a lesser restorative officer in a Bavarian infantry troop that was battling in Romania. Being a therapeutic officer, Carossa watched the soldiers of his troop from a distance
Many authors made efforts to discover why this soldiers kept their faith in this war, and yet many had lost their lives, properties destroyed, and hatred among nations had developed, many try to attribute this continued willing to fight for the each nation’s interests. Nations like French and Serbians were willing to do whatever it could take to prevent their nations from invasion. On the other hand, the British soldiers focused on the duty and the oath they had taken to their Emperor.
This idea was enough to lead men to battlefields and take the risks involved. However, some authors did not agree to this arguments as some felt it was enough to maintain this soldier courage and willing to continue fighting, even when they could see they’re collogued lose their lives, get tortured and moreover the gunshots involved in the battlefields. These authors kept attributed this loyal attitude to the sense of community, friendliness and companionship as they participated in these battles as comrades.
The soldiers were also trained to withstand the pressure regarding the war experiences. Military discipline and obedience also contributed to this loyalty as explained by other writers. The act of disobeying orders was punishable by severe penalties including death. Conviction of the inability to face an enemy due to the cowardly behavior was also considered an unforgivable mistake that could lead death sentence. In fact, thousands of soldiers had been executed due military offenses.
German soldiers most likely conveyed a heavier heap of battling than their counterparts, the British soldiers. Germany had an extensive population. However, German fighters were extent all over Europe on a few front lines. Ackermann and Carossa portrayed that the German warriors were always being utilized as flame detachments to accommodate Austria-Hungary, as SS divisions utilize as a part of Russia 25 years after the fact. Jünger had most of his time on the line. Here the British officers were not occupied in considering the incoming war. As winter appeared, some officers seemed to be bored to the point that there was a lot of time for them to think about the reason that made them get in the trenches. (Ulrich & Ziemann, 2010) Numerous soldiers trusted that the friendship of the trenches helped them through; yet a few warriors, for example, Vaughan did not fall in spite of a serious hatred of their fellow soldiers. Little unit unwavering assumed a huge part, yet this loyalty would not offer an officer through after he needed some assistance with having seen the greater part of his friends slaughtered.
Apart from the experiences of soldiers during the world war one, different authors also focused on how wars affected the entire aspects of children lives. Gills, in the here article, presented the experiences of civilians, especially children during the wars. They were not able to understand the reasons for the events; she expressed the emotional impacts on children who had been displaced, lost parents and family members and friends. In the book for the young people, in a collection of school essay published as by 1915, children expressed War has there the source of terror and fear. The propaganda also influenced children.
They developed victory imaginations as a source of consolation for their irresistible experiences. However many domestic invasions were rampant; children lives were expected to continue as normal in regards to their school and social life. For instance, the book shows a photo of a mother and child cooking but they are dressed in gas masks to prevent them from the hazardous Biogases emitted from war fields. Scaring sounds of bombs and gunshots from battlefields as well as rampant loss of lives could not let them live a normal lifestyle
British and German novels additionally uncovered that French civilian citizens were largely more inviting in line with the Germans as compared to the connection with the British troops. Vaughan met a Frenchwoman, who told him of how well the Germans had taken her. Winter noticed that several British novels portrayed French as rude and so unfriendly. German novels, by, on the other hand, portray the French civilian folks as exceptionally well mannered; obviously the Germans took what they needed regardless. These mentalities that were extended toward the French were not seen to be new, but rather it was fascinating to perceive how they were seen in wartime. In the initial and the last years of the war, when British armed forces were propelling, the French were seen to be friendlier toward them.
Authors also focused on the innovations that came as a result of the world war one. Previously in the Franco- Prussian cold war and Napoleonic wars 1870 to 1871, balloons were used for distribution of propaganda as well as observation. However, Wilkin, an author who has specialized in the history of war and the propaganda involved. Wrote an article about the war machines, he discussed the innovation of aerial aircraft that had been invented during the world war one conflict. The author, explains that, during the early stages of the conflict, airplanes were only used for observation missions, but with advanced technology, propellers were fixed with machine gun fire.
This innovation was developed by Anthony Fokker, who was an aircraft manufacturer from the Dutch but had been employed by Germans. In 1915, which around the time of innovation of this aircraft that could be used for war, Germans had an advantage and hence could easily achieve victory. The French fighting squadrons and the British Royal Flying Corps integrated. Still in 1915, the author attributed the victory of the Germans, to its strategy of Bombing the France and Britain with the used of Zeppelin airships. It was after this event that opponents began targeting manufacturing centers.
With time, the culture of aerial warfare penetrated into all aspects of the society, pilots and air forces gained popularity as they were considered clean soldiers, unlike the army who were stuck muddy trenches and carried heavy war equipment, this lead to jealous and conflicts between the forces. Whereas, some authors have paid attention to the contribution of aerial warfare to war conflict. Some consider it not useful especially after the armistice had been introduced and peace restored. However, collective memories have embraced this concept of war regarding its contribution in the air on the western front. Most nations that were involved in war conflicts developed their air forces. The used aircraft were also important in photography, and this could help the land forces to have a picture of the land and battlefield topography, hiding places and other strategic points.
Some authors also argue that this concept was crucial, and it laid the foundation for the currently used aerial warfare, as it called for urgent experiments and test due to the great need for this weapon. According to Wilin, this efforts depended on the weather, and this was its biggest drawback as enemies could utilize their knowledge on whether to attack. He also considers it risky since, even at the point of use the aircraft had not met the performance requirement and since the aircraft were installed with firearms, in any case the crushed it could lead to more severe death, than maintaining fights on the ground.
German soldiers most likely conveyed a heavier heap of battling than their counterparts, the British soldiers. Germany had an extensive population. However, German fighters were extent all over Europe on a few front lines. Some authors portrayed that the German warriors were always being utilized as flame detachments to accommodate Austria-Hungary, as SS divisions utilize as a part of Russia 25 years after the fact. Jünger had most of his time on the line. Here the British officers were not occupied in considering the incoming war.
As winter appeared, some officers seemed to be bored to the point that there was a lot of time for them to think about the reason that made them get in the trenches. Numerous soldiers trusted that the friendship of the trenches helped them through; yet a few warriors, for example, Vaughan did not fall in spite of a serious hatred of their fellow soldiers. Little unit unwavering assumed a huge part, yet this loyalty would not offer an officer through after he needed some assistance with having seen the greater part of his friends slaughtered. Morale stayed great all through the war to a great extent because soldiers never needed to invest much energy battling in the front edges.
The fight was positively appalling for every one of the officers included, however, most warriors little or no energy in genuine battle. Soldiers who used a lot of energy on the line where constantly separated; no measure of the patriotism or fellowship that could have kept a fighter from breaking if he could spend a month on the front line of the fighting troop. Luckily, most fighters did not spend more than a few days on to join the active part of the front line; this is best reflected in British. The High Commander of the British armed force was congratulated for an intelligent approach to a revolution that kept fighters in battling state for a longer period as compared to the normal rate.
Stevenson focused on the aftermath of the world war one; he took into consideration the various treaties that had been signed by the superpowers. He expressed the significance of the Paris Peace Conference, which had lead to the armistice agreements. This agreement could enable the Europeans to occupy a bigger portion of the territory; Wilson confronted the French, British and Italian prime ministers, the terms of the treaty were harsh to the central power, but they had limited options, and so they had to accept its terms and conditions. (Lefferts & Wall, 1926)
Encounters of the World War 1 intended to embrace the writing to frustration basing on the illustrative of the perspectives of most fighters who battled in the prevailing war and the civilians who perceived the war experiences differently. Whereas, war journals speak to a wide variety of perspectives; a few officers delighted in the on-going war that some of the soldiers hated it, however, most of this soldiers were not able to choose how they felt about the prevailing as they were under military orders that had to be respected.
Stone, N. (2009). World War One. New York: Basic Books.
Patterson, R., & Clifford, J. (2012). The World War I memoirs of Robert P. Patterson. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
Wishon, M. (2013). German Forces and the British Army. [Basingstoke]: Palgrave Macmillan.
Ulrich, B., & Ziemann, B. (2010). German soldiers in the Great War. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Military.
Lefferts, C., & Wall, A. (1926). Uniforms of the American, British, French and German armies in the war of the American revolution, 1775-1783. New York: Printed for the New-York Historical Society.
Jennifer Keene, M. N. (2011). Finding Common Ground: New Directions in First World War Studies. BRILL.
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