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A biodiversity hotspot is an area with intact natural ecosystem and hosts native species historically associated with the ecosystem. It also means an area highly populated with local species that are cannot be found or are rarely found in other sectors outside the hotspot and are threatened with extinction. The natural value of hotspots is very high therefore any actions taken at the moment to maintain this value may provide a high return on conservation dollar in the efforts to conserve biodiversity. For an area to qualify to be identified as a hotspot, it must meet two critical criteria. First it has to have more than 0.5 percent of the world vascular plant unique species (1500 species), and it must have lost more that 70 percent of the original habitats. The three factors that determine a hotspot are; the area must have many types of species, the species must be unique, and they are at the risk of extinction (Lee,2015).The establishment of an area as a biodiversity hotspot helps create a public awareness about the cost benefits of taking timely actions to conserve the biodiversity that helps reduce the loss of their value. The species in hotspots faced with extinction are irreplaceable, therefore; there a total loss in value due to the uniqueness and hence a need to conserve them.
It is defined as events that fulfill the current generations’ needs without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their needs. The concepts’ aim is to ensure economic and social developments especially of those with low standards of living while at the same time conserving the environment. There are three significant aspects of sustainable development; economics, social and environment. If any of these key components is not addressed by the society, then the other two will suffer. The sustainable concept of development was first developed in Stockholm in a conference called ‘eco-development’ which was held as a result of a conflict between ecology and economy. Although several countries have undertaken steps to achieve a sustainable material management most of these countries are a long way from achieving sustainable developments. We can look at how a deficiency of any one of the above-listed can affect the other; the United Nations division for sustainable development on its text on the development and human health summarizes this problem as “health and development are interconnected” (Hametner, Markus, and Reinhard, 2007). Insufficient development leads to poverty and inappropriate developments leading to over-consumption plus the increasing population cause severe environmental health problems. While the damages to the natural world and resource depletion directly affect human beings, the environment health and problems are a nice way of gauging how well sustainable development is working. The goal of sustainable development is securing economic development, social equity and justice and environmental protection.
Why it’s difficult to document the actual extinction of species
It’s difficult to record the actual extinction of species because: only a small percentage of the total world species have been identified, the describing and discovery of unidentified species tends to happen for the broadly distributed and the abundant taxa. For example, the recent global amphibian assessment of all species led to an additional 29 extinct species not previously recorded(Convention on Biological Diversity, 2015). Even where assessments have been conducted it takes years to prove that a species is extinct this is because appropriate surveys have to be carried out to confirm that the last of the species is dead. It may be difficult also to decide if a particular population represents a different species or not especially where the population is too small to be recognized without an individual sampling. Another reason is the assumption of failure to find a species despite repeated attempts will be accumulated to extinction.in other words monitoring of extinction levels is difficult.
Wilsons’ option of gathering global biodiversity information
Wilson came up with the global biodiversity map option of gathering information where the information is shared and readily synthesized and the information obtained is used to provide a global map of biodiversity. The maps will show not only raw data but also compiled information such as numbers of the species their behavior and characteristics. The analyzer may often be updated by accessing the existing and the evolving species data resources. The system allows the users to be updated with the changes happening in various populations’ taxa, genes, geographical locations and ecosystems of their interest. The system will alert the users when the diversity of species changes, as the system will be an active agent that will continue to grow data from various global explorations. The problem underlying this system is the quality of data provided as it’s not possible for the data providers to independently perform the necessary tasks that ensure the quality of the data is improved(Oxford Journals, 2009).
Direct, indirect and non-use values
Direct-use is the value gained from the direct consumption of a service or a good. For example, a person visiting Alaskan wilderness derives direct use from it. Indirect use, on the other hand, refers to the value received from an input used to produce something that people enjoy directly. For example, a person watching the Alaskan wildlife on a television derives an indirect use. On-use value refers to the values not associated with the actual consumption or the option to consume a good or service. For example, a person who contributes toward the protection of the Alaskan wilderness even though she has never been there and might never go there but does it because she values its existence (Ecosystem valuation.org.,2015).
Convention on Biological Diversity. (2015). The CBD Website. Retrieved from https://www.cbd.int/web/default.shtmlEcosystemvaluation.org. (2015).Valuation of Ecosystem Services. Retrieved from http://www.ecosystemvaluation.org/1-02.htmHametner, Markus, and ReinhardSteurer.”ESDN | European Sustainable Development Network.”ESDN | European Sustainable Development Network.N.p., 2007. Web. 18 Nov. 2015
Lee, A. (2015). What is a Biodiversity Hotspot? – Cool Articles. Retrieved from http://www.perunature.com/biodiversity-hotspot.htmlOxford Journals. (2009). Biodiversity informatics: automated approaches for documenting global biodiversity patterns and processes. Retrieved from http://bioinformatics.oxfordjournals.org/content/25/4/421.full
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