Name of the Student
Introduction• Is the research problem/phenomenon of interest identified?
Answer: Yes, the phenomenon of interest is well identified. This is because like other types of cancer in prostate cancer also individuals might have different perceptions and coping strategies. An analysis of such strategies will help nurses to tailor made care approaches especially in older individuals who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer. • Is the philosophical or theoretical basis of the study described?
Answer: The philosophical basis of the study is Phenomenology. Thus, the study is a systematic study based on experiential feelings which will provide a roadmap to take care of individuals who are similarly affected. A better understanding f perceptions of patents towards a disease can come from their thoughts, feelings, values and emotions (Burns & Grove, 2009).The core philosophy is based on Manen’s(1990) framework. This means one should investigate the experience of patients themselves, rather than forming a preconceived notion of their situation.• Is the research purpose clearly stated?
Answer: The research purpose is clearly stated because the study wanted to evaluate the experiential feelings of individuals affected by prostate cancer. • Is the research question congruent with the qualitative approach?
Answer: the research question is congruent with qualitative research because only subjective responses will be evaluated. Being a qualitative research there was no objective variables in the study (Creswell, 2009).
• What is the projected significance of the study?Answer: The projected significance of this study will help care providers to tailor made their care options especially in older individuals who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer, based on their own experiential feelings and probable coping strategies.
Review of the Literature• Does the literature review adequately summarize the existing body of knowledge about the phenomenon of interest?
Answer: Yes, because the literature review unfolded the essential qualitative parameters in the life of a human being which were spatiality, corporeality, temporality and relationality. In fact Van Manen (1990) described that based on the above four aspects, an individual’s experiential understanding may be studied or becomes reflected.• Does the literature review provide a sound basis for the study?Answer: The literature review produces a sound basis for the study because all the research questions were based on the experiential aspects as described by Manen (1990).
Protection of Human Research Participants• Explain what procedures were used to safeguard the rights of study participants. Are they sufficient?Answer: the rights of study participants were protected because the approval for the study was taken from the Institutional review board at Bethel University in St. Paul, MN (Krumwiede & Krumwiede, 2012). Research Design• Is the research design appropriate, given the research question?
Answer: Given the research question, the study design might seem appropriate as per individual experiential feeling may be assessed. However, the study did not bridge all the experiential feelings as described by Manen, holistically in a single individual. • Are design decisions explained and justified?
Answer: With respect to the parameters of experiential feelings, the design of the study or the semi-structured interview was appropriate. This is because the individuals were prompted on various aspects of experiential thoughts concerned with diagnosis, initiation of treatment and relationship with care providers after being detected by prostate cancer or in the process of getting detected with prostate cancer. • Did the researcher make decisions up front, or was the design emergent?
Answer: No, the study design was not emergent and it was planned after the philosophy f Manen(1990), and the researcher struck to the qualitative questions which described the experiential feelings based on spatiality, corporeality, temporality and relationality.• What design elements may have strengthened the study?Answer: The design dimensions which could have added power to the study was to evaluate the experiential feelings of ea and every individual patient holistically on the aspects of spatiality, corporeality, temporality and relationality and in relation to each other. This would have helped to better understand the coping strategies. Sample• Was the method for gaining access to potential study participants described?
Answer: Yes the method was described as 10 Caucasian men who were English speaking and in the age range of 62-70 years were selected for the study. Further the time since diagnosis was described and the therapy of prostate cancer that they received was well described. • Was the process for selecting participants described?
Answer: A snowball technique was applied to select a convenient sample of 10 individuals.
• What was the context and location of the study?
Answer: The context of the study was to understand the experiential feelings of individuals diagnosed and treated for prostate cancer. The location of the study was Minnesota. • How was the sample size determined?
Answer: A snowball technique was used to detect sample size which was based on purposive sampling. This means individuals who were either treated or detected for prostate cancer were included in the study. • Were the study participants described in detail?
Yes, the study participants were adequately described in terms of their treatment initiation, the waiting time for diagnosis and their concerns over such periods. 1Data Collection• Were the procedures for collecting data adequately described?
Answer: No the collection of data was not adequately described, because the inclusion and exclusion criteria were not revealed.• Did the researcher ask the right questions?
Answer: the researchers asked the prototype questions , however the patients took up individual aspects of experiential feelings rather than associating all the four aspects holistically. • Was a sufficient amount of data collected? Were the data of sufficient depth and richness?
Answer: Since. Only 10 individuals were included in the study data cannot be considered sufficient. Data Analysis• Was the data analysis strategy compatible with the research tradition and type of data collected?
Answer: Yes, because it was a qualitative research and so only subjective feelings were expressed. • Were categories and themes defined clearly and adequately?
Answer: The themes were defined clearly based on Manen’s philosophy (1999) of experiential aspects. • What strategies did the investigators use to control bias?Answer: Since the questions were open ended, the individuals expressed their concerns at length and breadth of the experiential aspect and nothing specific was focused or asked by the researcher.Trustworthiness• Were the methods used to enhance trustworthiness sufficient?
Aswer: The method may be trustworthy, but the data might not be. This is owing to the small number of sample.• How did the researcher document research procedures and the decision process?
Answer: The data was audio recorded and subsequently analyzed. • Are findings auditable and confirmable?
Answer: Yes, since the recordings are documented and audit trail has been implicated• Is there evidence of “researcher reflexivity”?
Answer: No, because only prototype questions were being adhered to and the frame work of interview was not changed from initial planning. Findings• Are the findings effectively summarized with good use of excerpts and supporting arguments?
Answer: Yes the findings are summarized and put to supporting arguments• Do the themes adequately capture the meaning of the data?
Answer: Since the philosophy behind the study was clearly sated hence the meaning of the data with relation to apprehensions of diagnosis, treatment and interpersonal relationships with care personnel is clearly captured. • Are the findings linked to the philosophical or theoretical basis of the study?Answer: Yes, because all such apprehensions were matched to the experiential aspects based on spatiality, temporality, corporality and relationality. Implications• What are the implications of the study findings for nursing practice, education, and research discussed?
Answer: Oncology Nurses must ensure holistic care providing in cancer patients. Therefore an understanding of coping strategies and concerns, will help nurses to tailor made care approaches especially in older individuals who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer• How do the findings contribute to evidence-based nursing practice?
Answer: Since, the study was based on evidence based philosophy nurses can clearly implement the same in clinical settings to better understand the individualistic needs of a patient to render care. This will help them to provide person-centric care.
Burns, N., & Grove, S.K. (2009). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis and
generation of evidence (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders
Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method
approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Krumwiede, K., & Krumwiede, N. (2012). The lived experience of men diagnosed with
prostate cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 39(5), E443–E450
van Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive
pedagogy. New York, NY: State University of New York