1. Reconstruction and the post-war South
A). What were the implications of the process of reconstruction for the South?
African Americans got new rights and opportunities by reconstruction. They were free and slavery was a forgotten history. They had the opportunity to form their churches, schools and organisations. Literacy among them was improved by charitable organisations. The majority of the white southerners were making economic and social improvements that were meant to change the region to a new era (Clark, 2012). New industries and cultural venues were opened. On the other hand reconstruction also faced many challenges like; Whites resistance who despised the African Americans, corruption, terrorist attacks from Ku Klux Klan (KKK) who despised African Americans and the Republicans. Incompetence in the state government is caused by illiteracy (Fitzgerald, 2007).
B). What are the lessons of the reconstruction?
Beyond the physical imperfection, there was still a lot to reconstruct in the south other than buildings, roads and railways, farms and manufacturing. Also, the socio-political engagement needed rebuilding.
C). Can they be applied to the contemporary United States military actions in foreign countries?
The United States military has learnt a lot of lessons from the civil war and the act of reconstruction. The militants involved in foreign missions should always apply the lessons of civil strife of southern United States in reconstructing battling societies in their respective missions in the foreign land (Clark, 2012)
2. President Andrew Johnson’s role in reconstruction
A). Did President Andrew Johnson helps or hinders the process of reconstruction?
President Andrew Johnsons hindered the process of reconstruction by practising racial prejudice whereby he favoured the whites and despised the blacks.
B). What were his political compulsions?
In 1865, he implemented a plan that gave no role to the blacks but gave the South whites authority in regulating change from slavery to freedom. In May the same year, he gave authority to the white southern to create a new government and denied blacks any participation. He ordered all the land in the government to be given back to its owners making the blacks squatters. The blacks were also not given freedom of democracy by being denied the right to vote and education (Fitzgerald, 2007).
C).How did the opposition make the president’s task easier or more difficult?
The president’s task was made more difficult by the opposition as they kept on overturning and vetoing Bureau Bills. Opposition to radicals and the opposition referred to him as autocratic ‘ King Andy.’ This triggered a censure motion by the Congress to impeach the president.
3. Civil war and the United States
A).What was the impact of the civil war on the evolution of the United States as a nation?
The United States civil war of 1861 after that changed the political and social arena of the nation. States that had seceded and those that remained loyal to the union made and amended laws that protected the democratic rights and freedoms of all. In the post-civil war, America medical advances were achieved in many ways. The civil war prepared a ground for modern medicine, producing hundreds of semi-schooled physicians with a wide training experience. Through the civil war, the cultural legacy has influenced national holidays and commemoration, for example, the Emancipation day (Fitzgerald, 2007). Technology has not been left behind in the post-civil war of America. Military advances have been achieved greatly following the need to protect the American people. Development of language has not been left behind as well as veteran’s legacy where a system has been designed to commemorate and honour the veterans.
B).Explain the impact over several period .Also, note any impact perceptible today.
The abolishment of slavery in constitutional 13th amendment alongside other amendments impacted positively on the American people and all men of all races were regarded and treated as equals and their rights protected (Clark, 2012). This meant a new beginning.
Clark, T. D. (2012). The postwar South, 1865-1900: An era of reconstruction and readjustment. Norman, Okla: Univ. of Oklahoma Pr.
Fitzgerald, M. W. (2007). Splendid Failure: Postwar Reconstruction in the American South. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.
In Clark, T. D. (2014). Travels in the new South: A Bibliography. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Kennedy-Nolle, S. D. (2015). Writing Reconstruction: Race, gender, and citizenship in thepostwar South.
Lincove, D. A. (2009). Reconstruction in the United States: An annotated bibliography. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Greenwood Press.