By directly using abstract reasoning, the Ontological argument endeavours to provide evidence that supports the existence of God. Considering that the argument is completely a priori, there is no empirical evidence at all used to support the claim. Instead, the argument opens with an explication of the idea of God and makes an attempt confirm that there is a God on the foundation of that idea alone. Hume raises questions concerning the possibility of the existence of such proof even in principle. The argument is recognised to be ingenious in the sense that it is challenging to point out what is wrong with it, in case there is any. The forms of the arguments create a connection between three ideas: the ideas of God, of perfection, as well as of existence. The connection is that the concept of God is an extension of the idea of perfection, as well as of existence (Dewey & Deen, 2012).
The initial formulation of the ontological argument was in the 11th century by St Anselm in the second chapter of his Proslogium. He was prominent and widely acknowledged philosopher who based the Ontological argument for the identification of God as “that than which no greater can be conceived” (Dewey & Deen, 2012). According to Anselm, God has to exist once a person understands that God is that than which no greater can be conceived.
The Two Worlds Assumption assumes that an evil demon exists, rather than assuming that the origin our human beings’ deceptions are God. The Two Worlds Assumption assumes that the evil demon can deceive human beings in a similar way that human beings thought God was capable. As a result of the assumption, Descartes had a reason to doubt the entirety of what his senses were telling him in addition to the mathematical knowledge he appeared to have. With the understanding that the source of knowledge of human beings is not possible to lie in the sense, Descartes had to find another method of reconstructing the edifice of knowledge with the assistance of the material he was able to find within his individual mind. Accordingly, the only thing he was capable of being certain of on the foundation of this only was his individual existence.
The obstacle presented by the Two Worlds Assumption is the possibility of being deceived by an evil demon and therefore not being capable of arriving at the right conclusion during mediations. Consequently, the construction of the edifice of knowledge would be challenging.
Foundationalism is a perception concerning the system of justification or of knowledge. According to the concept of foundationalism, the assumption is that there are foundation beliefs that are capable of guaranteeing their personal truth. Descartes thought that he existed because he was capable of thinking. It was as a result of the fundamental assumption that he was able to come up with none—basic beliefs: first concerning God and second that the existence of God meant we could believe in our senses and study the world inductively. Nonetheless, Descartes came up with a system that made the assumption that sense should be trusted, not as much as reason. The point he was putting across was that all systems come preinstalled with principles, or assumption that give justification to that system. There is no much difference from foundationalism (Dewey & Deen, 2012).
David Hume first makes the claim that indeed, there is an existence of a more mitigated scepticism that does not have long-term repercussions, but is also beneficial, Which is partly the result of the Pyrrhonism in the case that its familiar, doubts are made straight through the application of common sense and reflection (Wolman, 1981). The claim states that people are naturally inclined to be affirmative dogmatic in their perceptions and tend to observe things from a single point of view without being aware of the existence of other points of view. Human beings have a fundamental tendency to follow only the principles they believe in and do not spend their time to understand or see things from the points of view of those who are opposed to their ideas or beliefs.
The second claim made by Hume is that “another kind of mitigated scepticism, which may be of benefit to humanity, and which may be the inherent result of the pyrrhonian doubts and qualms, is the restriction of our enquiries to such topics as are best accommodated to the narrow potential of human comprehension” (Wolman, 1981). Hume claims that the imagination of human beings is naturally inspirational and that people are usually delighted by things that are extraordinary and those that are in the farthest existence of space and time so as to circumvent those object that they are familiar with. Consequently, Hume points out that the best judgement is one that pays attention to an opposing method while avoiding all the strange objects and pays attention to concepts that exist in the daily life.
Dewey, J., & Deen, P. (2012). Unmodern philosophy and modern philosophy. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Wolman, B. B. (1981). Contemporary Theories and Systems in Psychology. Boston, MA: Springer US.
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