Overpopulation control on the world
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Overpopulation Control and the World
With the passage of time, the human population has increased dramatically all over the world and more specifically, in certain regions. Overpopulation is a situation in which the number of the human population exceeds the capacity of the Earth. Surely, there are a number of factors that includes, better medical facilities, reduced mortality rates and most importantly, massive depletion of the Earth’s precious resources thereby resulting in imbalance called, overpopulation. As part of the development of overpopulation, the countries have harnessed different benefits at the cost of different consequences. Nevertheless, the conditions can become quite severe that the population increment in certain regions is much more serious as compared to other regions of the world. Countries, like China, Pakistan, and India contribute towards the formulation of a massive population of the world thereby leading to deterioration in natural resources, environmental condition and exploitation of every possible resource of Earth. This paper will look forward to develop an understanding regarding the basic causes, challenges and solutions for overpopulation together with advantages and disadvantages of it.
Causes of Overpopulation
There are some causes behind the overpopulation of Earth. Reduction in the mortality rates is one of the most vital aspects of the overpopulation. Mathematically, the reason behind the overpopulation is the difference between the birth rate and death rate all across the globe. Considering that the number of children that are born each day equates the deaths of people would only lead towards a more stabilized population. Within this scenario, it is of importance to note that the rate of birth can be greatly controlled, and its impacts can be felt on long-term perspectives.
Another important aspect of it includes the industrial revolution and provision of better healthcare services all around the world. Technological advancements also had numerous serious consequences on human health; however, it cannot surpass the benefits of recovering from severe illnesses that were considered untreatable in the past. Medical Sciences have made tremendous advancement that the cancer has even become treatable in early stages. Alexis et al. (74-85) have mentioned a technological advancement of nanotechnology. In their paper, they said “Design of multifunctional nanoparticles capable of targeting cancer cells, delivering and releasing drugs in a regulated manner, and detecting cancer cells with enormous specificity and sensitivity are just some examples of the potential application of nanotechnology to oncological diseases” (74) like cancer. Famine has also become a matter of past thereby having advancement that includes food for almost everyone. However, the combination of better food distribution with better medical treatment is one of the major sources for tipping the balance of the population of humans.
While talking about overpopulation, it is of importance to understand the technological advancement in the medical grounds of fertility treatment as well. Sharma et al., (77-83) have given a number of alternative solutions for the developing countries. They have concluded that in fighting infertility “women bear the major brunt of this devastating social, medical and economic burden.” (80). Also, it was suggested that the “Governments should work with the medical community to develop low-cost treatments, including affordable assisted reproductive technology.” (81) Technological advancement has giving ample chances for the human beings for undergoing procedures for having their own babies. Hence, it is another major aspect of increment in the birth rate along with making pregnancies much safer for mothers.
The influx of massive populations of immigrant towards developing countries including Australia, United States, and European countries have posed another imminent threat for the reduction in useful resources of the locals and natives. These resources also include basic needs and necessities including food, water, and shelter. Nevertheless, the global population remains the same but the population density is substantially changed in this regard. Also, the people belonging from different countries have a lack of literacy regarding family planning, which also makes another cause for enhancement in population on a global scale. Most of the people belonging to developing countries including India, China and Pakistan contribute to the significant portion of the population on the global scale.
Advantages of Overpopulation Control
Adoption of different means of birth control and contraceptive has a number of benefits for the mankind. The most important of it includes the control of resources in a much better fashion. For that successful allocation of resources of food, water, energy and shelter would become much readily manageable by the governments. Moreover, it would also serve to enhance the quality of life of every citizen living in almost all part of countries; more specifically developed countries. At the current stage, out of the one billion population of the world, one of seven people goes to bed without food. Also, everyday more than 25,000 people die because of hunger and mul-nutritional diseases. The most major advantage of using birth control measure would serve to reduce excessive pressure on the economy of the country thereby making food production as well as distribution much easier and quite sustainable.
Energy requirement is another severe issue that is being faced by the current overpopulating world. Reduction in population would serve to enhance reallocation of those energy sources for everyone thereby reducing the prices of oil and gas for the general populace. Considering the current scenario of overpopulating cities like Mumbai, New York, London, Mexico City, Karachi and Pecking, the overpopulation has caused the massive enhancement in demand of energy sources in these specific countries. The most common part of it is that most of the cities are cosmopolitan cities having booming markets and industrial parks. Hence, reduction in overpopulation all around the world would surely enhance the employment rates together with reduced cost of living for locals (McLeish 18-33). McLiesh (20) has said, “whether the rate or extent of population growth, it is clear that humans have a huge impact on the planet.”
In this regard, China’s one child policy is of substantial importance. As part of being a country, China was the most populated country five decades before, and it is also one of the most populated countries in the world. However, the proper policy making and management has provided the country the control population growth via one child policy. Enactment of policy has aims to serve the country with much healthier citizens by enhancing the quality of life while enjoying the status of an economic giant. As part of the policy, China has decided to avert the birthrate of more than four million babies in the last four decades which is considerably larger than the United States population alone. Another core aspect of it is that the manpower shortage would result by implementation of such policies; however, being a highly industrialized country and manufacturing hub within Asia, the policy has not quite readily affected the general production throughputs. Environmental conditions are also quite commonly affected by the overpopulation. Development of one child policy has provided numerous economic ramifications and provided a constructive impact on the environment. Explaining different alternatives for sustainability, Miller and Spoolman (89) have pointed out “certain interactions among species, along with other natural limits to population growth in nature”. Surely, an unchecked growth of population would deprive the country of its viable resources thereby making it economically and socially unstable. Apart from that, overpopulation could also have led the countries towards “irrecoverable debts” and at the verge of economic collapse thereby disrupting the very fabric of the nation. However, the controlled growth could help the companies to provide much better outlooks for employment of people and making the cost of living much more reduced and within the reach of people living below poverty line. Similarly, the impact could also be felt on the quality of education, healthcare and the very fabric of society. Hence, Miller and Spoolman have also suggested, “we can slow human population growth by reducing poverty through economic development, the elevating status of women and encouraging family planning” (89).
Disadvantages of Overpopulation Control
Controlling overpopulation would also serve to provide a number of harms on different scales. The first and foremost includes the diversity issues. Considering the controlling of the population, the government would become responsible for the number of birth against the unplanned pregnancies, premarital pregnancies and/or younger pregnancies. It would reduce the diversity of the general populace and considering the above scenario of one child policy can even lead to the extinction of people belonging to a certain country and/or culture. Moreover, it can also lead to tipping the balance on the extinction side of population scales.
On economic grounds, overpopulation serves to reduce the labor cost of the workers thereby leading to much better economic conditions of the country. Under the scenario of excessive control, the resources would exceed the population thereby reducing the consumption rate of different items (demand of product) and enhancement of production cost. On severe circumstances, it can also lead towards financial meltdown of different institutions operating at full capacities. Surely, the economy of almost every country cannot sustain such massive change in the course of human history.
Another issue that is usually overlooked is the environmental impact on the application of overpopulation control. The ratio of the average person living as compared to the resources utilized is around 1:3. Considering the population control exceeding the very amount of resources would turn the world into a global landfill and the trash disposal sites would become quite cluttered up which can be around three times. Orleans (59-73) have looked into the situation as the population of China, and it’s communist backbone. In explaining that Orleans () said, “T he 2 per cent, natural increase (excess of births over deaths), resulting in an annual population growth of some 12 million, was declared, in line with Marxist doctrine, to be an asset in a country with vast new lands and unexploited natural resources, where additional people create additional wealth.”
Considering different policies regarding overpopulation control, they have generally inflicted more damage than good to the country. The example of one child policy is one of them. This policy has damaged the gender ratio of China as well. Regarding the current scenario, NLCATP has mentioned “Today, there is a dismal male-female ratio in the country.” China has fifty million more males as compared to females. Surely, this change is not natural and is quite detrimental to the social viability of Chinese nation. The natural ratio is around a hundred and six men for one hundred women. Hence, it has created a situation in China at which there are millions of men that do not have any wife or girlfriend. Moreover, the one child policy has controlled the birth rather than the older population of China. Susan Greenhalgh (253-276) has given in-depth analysis of growing Chinese economy and population as part of one child policy. She has noted, “The inappropriateness of the policy solution became painfully clear in 1983, when, in a changed environment, policy makers undertook a very big push solution, a massive, nation-wide campaign aimed at jump-starting one-childization by sterilizing one member of all couples with two or more children and aborting all unauthorized pregnancies” (275). A similar study conducted by Zhang and Kanbur (189-204) has lead towards the development of increased the healthcare costs within China thereby reduction in manpower resources as well. They have pinpointed, “the institutional and historical background on the public provision of education and healthcare and examined the patterns and evolution of social inequality” (201).
All in all, overpopulation is one of the most severe problems that are being faced by the world. However, there are a number of controlling measures for reducing its impacts on the economy, employment and social scales. It also serves to enhance the environmental conditions on local as well as global scales too. Nevertheless, the policies and regulations for population control should have to be based on striking the perfect balance between over-population and extinction.
Alexis, Frank, et al. “New frontiers in nanotechnology for cancer treatment.”Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations. Vol. 26. No. 1. Elsevier, 2008: 74-85
Greenhalgh, Susan. “Missile science, population science: the origins of China’s one-child policy.” The China Quarterly 182 (2005): 253-276.
McLeish, Ewan. Population Explosion. New York: Rosen Central, 2010: 18-33.
Miller, G. Tyler, and Scott Spoolman. Sustaining The Earth. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, 2009. Print. p. 89
NLCATP, ‘8 Major Pros And Cons Of The One Child Policy | NLCATP.Org’. N.p., 2015. Web. 3 June 2015. p. 2
Orleans, Leo A. “Birth Control: Reversal or Postponement?.” The China Quarterly 3 (1960): 59-73.
Sharma, S., S. Mittal, and P. Aggarwal. “Management of infertility in low-resource countries.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 116.s1 (2009): 77-83.
Zhang, Xiaobo, and Ravi Kanbur. “Spatial inequality in education and health care in China.” China economic review 16.2 (2005): 189-204.