Nature versus nature
Are Killers Born or Made?
Date of Submission
One may ask why various individuals have the propensity for constantly committing murder while others don’t. It so happens that people don’t have mercy when taking someone else’s life without mercy. At times, it is disturbing how these killers work out and how they pretend not listen to the pleas of their victims. Is it a matter of heredity behavior or one’s craving to do as such? These inquiries and many more are a few reasons that have achieved a blazing contention from the discipline of psychology in the endeavor to discover the wellspring of killer behavior. This study about a serial killer embroils that it’s the reason for their insanity; these killers are made. They are not born. Further research demonstrates that sure examples in sequential order happen between these chronologies of various cases. Serial killers swing to manhandling powerless creatures to help with their wrath. The motive in their grown-up life originates from subdued indignation, and unprecedented identity attributes that prompt criminal abnormality. They exact torment on defenseless victims that look like their childhood tormentor. This essay will bring out components that may prompt noting some of these inquiries taking a picture at both methodologies whether one is born a killer or is made a killer on account of various elements. Nevertheless, the paper will take a position and contend that these killers are made and that nobody is born a killer.
Murder can be defined as the act of premeditated and unlawful or unjustifiable killing of a human being by a fellow human. In the modern society, murder is a crime that is punishable by law severely for retribution and rehabilitation. Murder denies an individual the right to life. Penalties for murder vary in many countries varying from a long sentence to a death penalty. A killer or murderer is the person who commits the murder. In order to catch the murderers, the police engage in profiling of the perpetrators to establish the motive.
A large percentage of murders in many countries are fuelled by disappointment, anger, vengeance, jealousy and frustration. Murder can be grouped into personal revenge, serial killers, the social violence of gangs, mental illness, religious fundamentalist’s violence, national violence and international violence.
Are we wired to kill?
Are we predestined to have a particular personality? Do we come pre-programmed like the latest gadget on store shelves? As humans do genes, or the environments determine our future path, does nature decided or nurture? The phrase nature versus nature was first coined by the British polymath Francis Galton. He simply explained it as, “Nature is all that man brings with himself into the world; nurture is every influence that affects him after birth.”(Sweeney, Gerald, 2001). Although Galton was the first to coin the phrase, “Nature versus nature,” its debate had been ragging on centuries before him.
First known philosophers to have the contentious disagreement about the topic were Greek philosophers Aristotle and Plato. Aristotle believed in the idea of “Tabula Rasa”, this concept proposes the notion that every human being is born with a blank slate unique personal behaviors like; personality, sexual preference, and certain physical attributes are attained from the environment. On the other hand, Plato believed that intelligence and human behavior were due to innate factors but that some environmental factors still had some influence in human development. Although both concepts are both valid and true, the concept has widely been over simplified. One side cannot exist without the other, “You inherit your environment just as much as your genes.” (Johnny Rich, the Human Script). Therefore to examine certain traits found one should examine both environmental and genetic influences. The focus of this paper will be on the question, are killers born or made? Are certain individuals born for the sole purpose of killing or they shaped by their environment to become the people they are?
Types of killers
A killer can be characterized as a man who has carried out murder. It doesn’t make a difference whether one has carried out that crime once or various times. Two sorts of secret killers exist. We have a killer who is organized, meticulous and carefully plans each of his killings while another one who is disorganized opportunistic and an impulse killer. The organized one is extremely savvy. He/she plots his/her plans for committing murder. They, as a rule, have weapons, which is used to confer the act. Most of the time they are mindful not to, leave a proof, like do take “souvenirs”. Some even leave a mark, or even, strange pieces of information to mislead investigators. Psychopath’s people are normally organized serial killers, (Slee, Adrain & Martin, 1999).
A good example of an organized killer is a mass murderer who kills a large number of victims in one place and time. They are commonly known as walking time bombs because once they strike without warning, they cause a lot of damage and loss of lives. This type of killers target places where there are a lot of people and damage is bound to be large.
In America Schools mass shooting has become more frequent. For example, on a Thursday of October this year, Chris Harper went on a mass shooting spree at Umpqua community college in Oregon leaving ten dead and seven injured. This incident was the 45th school shooting in the history of America. The Mass shooting in schools continues to rise because of some of the following motivational typologies:
This scenario happens when a long term or a new employee in an organization who is about to get fired. He or she becomes dissatisfied or starts to have a mental lapse. This employee becomes angry and when he or she is unable to contain the dissatisfaction he or she lashes on a killing spree.
This is often caused by cults where people follow the leader of the cult blindly, their main aim been to please their leader. The victims of such mass murders are sometimes random but in most cases the victims are used symbolic for example like killing young children.
This is the main driving force of mass murders where an individual becomes mentally unstable and bursts out with violence. The immediate victims of these people are family members and relatives, or the people who the individual mostly associate with for example a student after becoming mentally unstable can try to harm his or her fellow students or teachers, innocent civilians are not mostly the target of the mentally unstable.
These individuals are mostly people who stockpile weapons. They then go out on a killing spree mostly trying to correct something that they see is wrong. For example, an individual may have a view that the world is becoming overpopulated and in order to correct this, they see their only remedy is to kill individuals randomly.
This mass shooting can be prevented from regulating weapon and gun control. Gun control can be achieved by making background checks universal and the banning of the sale of semi-automatic weapons that holds more than ten rounds of ammunition.
Psychopath’s cases more often than not know the distinction in the middle of good and bad. A disorganized serial killer, then again, executes at whatever point an open door emerges; they are untidy, leave signs, for example, fingerprints, blood, or even semen. Psychopaths have a tendency to be disorganized when they commit a murder crime. It in a way makes it easier for them to be detected. These serial killers get typically detached from society. Potential serial killers portray the following traits that makes them tick and compels them to do what they do:
Substance and Alcohol Abuse
Women who abuse alcohol and substance abuse during their pregnancy may make their unborn babies have birth defects such as been a retard, brain issues and small eyes. People born with these defects always find it difficult to face them. Children who also grow up in families where there are alcohol and substance abuse may also have difficulties due to the problems experienced in this families. These individuals suffer from the feeling of inadequacy and depression.
Sexually events that were stressful in childhood
Violent sexual experiences in childhood impact heavily on an individual’s development. Many known serial killers experienced violent sexual experiences either by being done to them or the family member. This type of abuse in childhood leads to social isolation, self-control and learning difficulties.
Growing up lonely and isolated
Families of to be serial killers are mostly dysfunctional where the relationship between the members is tensed up. These families have a tendency of moving around a lot where the children keep on changing schools and moving to new places. This impacts negatively on the children who becomes isolated because they have no friend and at times this makes them loose the capability of creating relationships with other children.
Psychological abuse in childhood
Most of the serial killers according to research were abused as children either emotionally or through neglect that affects them psychologically. Emotionally this impairs the child’s self-esteem and his ability to lead a normal life in the society, school or in relationships. Neglect, on the other hand, makes the child be desensitized and the child grows up devoid of empathy, mercy and kindness for others.
Every serial killer has his or her own fantasy that they fantasize about. These fantasies are always about being in control and violation. Serial killers focus on their negative fantasies like their own traumas the difference being they change their role as the victim to the assailant. At first, the serial killer fantasies on committing murder but after the first murder, he or she starts to fantasize on how he can perfect on committing murder with great efficiency and skill.
Physical head injuries in childhood due to an accident or consistent physical abuse or during birth leads to the damage of the hypothalamus, limbic brain or the temporal lobe. This delicate areas of the brain control aggression, hormones, motivation and emotion, thus if they are damaged this may cause bouts of spontaneous aggression.
Voyeurism and fetishism in adulthood
Many serial killers in adulthood become obsessed in voyeurism and fetishism that starts as a harmless interest of peeping at people when they are unaware they are being watched, but later develops to rape, murder and housebreaking.
Psychologists have think of many suppositions and goals in the matter of why people carry out murder. The two primary elucidations lie in hereditary and environmental components, which passes on to nature and nurture face off regarding. Some contend that killers are born, these are philosophers and scientists who trust that the hereditary qualities assume a part in a person’s behavior and along these lines killers are as a consequence of the same; these are twin and reception thinks, (Norris, 1988). Then again there are additionally ponders that have been led to demonstrate that killers are made by society; these are researcher and philosophers who consider that it is the environment, for example, a person’s connection with the general public that models the behavior of the person.
A few psychologists and restorative analysts have to go to the hypothesis that killer behavior is innate pretty much as other medicinal conditions, for example, coronary illness and elevated cholesterol. This gives a decision that killers tend to carry out crime and are without a doubt born. Then again, a person who is not hereditarily slanted to killer behavior can be constrained by the environment to get included into the same. Associate weight is one of best representation in such cases. The greater part of the killers today is from big urban communities where living conditions are by one means or another unfriendly. One of the main considerations that drive such people to killer behavior is neediness, which for this situation lies in the nature side of the civil argument, (Egger, 2002). That is to say, destitution, which is an environmental element, also assumes a tremendous part in creating killer behavior.
There are two huge undertakings that a man who is bringing up a child ought to do; these two errands are essential for a youthful child’s mental development. The primary errand is to offer certainty to the new-born child’s incautious satisfaction. It is basic that the little child finds the premise of mental self-portrait and self-regard, the lion’s share of which originates from his or her wellspring of life. Killers most of the time never created self-assurance as children.
The second errand is to give backing to the child. At the point when a child encounters negative influences, a guardian must be the base, and give sufficient backing to the child. This will educate the child how to adapt to excruciating emotions and circumstances when they become more established. Also, when raising a new-born child, the good example must build up his or her mental associations to guide baby in the right bearing, (Seltzer, 1998).
Individuals who were physical, emotionally or sexually manhandled in their early life, were more probable than were non-mishandled people to act savagely as adults. Such type of hostility is a major component in transforming people into killers. The hostility surfaces and comes full circle in an arrangement of frightful sexual murders and additionally wild and ruthless systems. The greater part is to stifle the period of vulnerability and corruption the serial killer experienced. They came up with an absence of romanticizing, where they neglect to build up a self-image, which is normally gained from their parents, (Selman & Pardo, 2006).
Serial killer, for example, Ted Bundy was viewed as a mental case; he experienced a constant mental issue with vicious and unpredictable social behaviors. He was an organized serial killer. He would approach young women with cocoa hair separated in the center, which looked like his school sweetheart that made him extremely upset. His arm was in a sling, as though he was powerless, he requested that women offer him some assistance with carrying his staple goods to his auto. Bundy dependably had an arrangement before he drew closer his casualty. There was an occurrence where a casualty did escape alive and distinguished Bundy, (Ressler & Shachtman, 1993). This is the point at which he had investigators and news show a plan to arrest him while Bundy was occupied with studying and making sense of ways not to be found.
In this case, Ted had issues from his school days that haunted him even as an adult, to overcome this Feeling Ted would find young women with hair that looked like that of his school sweetheart. By doing this Ted was replaying his school days with his school sweetheart who had obviously betrayed him or left him because back then he was powerless. The killing is a way of revenge against his high school sweetheart.
It is contended that these killers consist of two noteworthy segments, nature, and nurture; they each have an exceptionally significant influence on a human. Nature happens to be the characteristic capacities of people, and nurture, on the other hand, is the thing that we gain from other people in a social circumstance. Learning has enormous influence in the way a man carries on; as does their actual identity. The ways these killers are raised is influenced by both nature and nurture. Jeffery Dahmar is an instance of nurture.
He was attacked by a male neighbor. His guardian’s battled every now and again, later separating. After his guardian’s had separated, he was allowed to sit unbothered. Neither one of the parents thought to bring Dahmar with them when it happened that they had to evacuate. Abandonment assumed an immense part in Dahmar’s life, (Lane & Gregg, 1994). The trepidation of abandonment was an intention in him to execute others. He also lacked empathy due to the feeling of abandonment. He murdered due to his apprehension of abandonment, if he slaughtered individuals, they could be with him for eternity. The issue of his guardians always battling affected him emotionally too where he felt torn in between the two guardians. This also made him become socially alienated
The different ways all finished in restricted, the passing of guiltless individuals, (Lester, 1995). Their childhoods, from the outset to adulthood, are exceptionally urgent. It is contended that many individuals have been manhandled or sexually ambushed and have defeated these impediments to carrying on with an ordinary life. In any case, most of the casualties did not have lacking pre-oedipal encounters that unequivocally add to what frames a killer.
Oedipal is characterized as the phases of growth of the mental parts of sexuality from conception to adulthood. They are portrayed by suggestive attachment to the guardian of the inverse sex, quelled given an apprehension of the guardian of the same sex; more often than not happening between the ages of three and six years, (Kelleher & Kelleher, 1998).
On the other hand, neediness is by all account not the only environmental component that may lead a person to the crime. One may see that, however, neediness is a variable in killer behavior, not all individuals leaving in destitution enjoy crime. This is to say that killer behavior can be controlled by the environmental components like what lessons one is taught, (Newton, 1990). Still, not all killers originate from an unassuming foundation or huge urban communities; some also originate from well-off families living in the external edge. These are companion impact, actually people are sensible, and they openly settle on choices despite the fact that they comprehend the result of their decisions. Therefore, killers are not born but rather made.
The old maxim says that shrewd group harm decent standards. Relating with killers can make a person wind up as a killer. This may be the real rationale why children from well-off families get the killer behavior. Trivial violations submitted by children may give off an impression of being a story to companions who might also be included the same for pleasurable. Over the length of time of time, this behavior may demonstrate to wind up a changeless thing. Associate weight is, for the most part, clear in the ghettos where houses near each other. Among different variables, this clarifies why the crime rate is on the higher by and large in the poor region, (Newton, 2006).
Families in inward urban communities are confronting many difficulties. There are greatly a colossal number of single guardian families where the father is absent. A family where the father is missing does not have that solidarity that a father gets a gang. Young men require a father figure in the family to offer them some assistance with growing and figure out how to control their masculinity. In Addition to this household, an antagonistic vibe that is widespread in families and the circumstances that get to be evident is a rising number of youth raised in such homes, (Wilson & Seaman, 2007). Another great illustration is the high rate of killer action connected with African Americans when contrasted with the whites. This must be clarified by the companion impact gained from each other in these areas.
A family blends a person to the outside world. It presents the possibilities of society on every person. At the point when the individual is raised in a family set up where there is admiration for power and individual belonging, there is friendship, and diligent work is valued; this individual accepts the comparable standards. A father figure in the family symbolizes power, (Schmid, 2006). Children raised in single parented families where they were battered may articulate their threat on the general population and get to be killers. The significance of raising children in typical families can’t be negated. Subsequently most single parented families assume a noteworthy part to crime in that they don’t impart the best of the children they raise by drawing out the obligatory ethics. This clearly outlines why a family is the heart of each general public, and everything that happens in it will, in the long run, reverberate transversely in the entire society. The same identifies with schools. A school insert supportive ethics, as well as approve children to lead direct lives. Inability to this, its graduates may be inclined to crime. From the circumstances above, the environment additionally plays the essential undertaking in initiating killers, (Godwin & Canter, 1997). In this manner, killers are made. This is to say, killers understand living conditions to constrain this behavior from their neighborhood or they.
Psychologists argue that families with deficient correspondence and poor family attachment have appeared to have an association with a child’s development of antagonistic/killer behavior. Children are at a greater danger of including in violations, on the off chance that they were surrendered or ignored, (Johnson & Becker, 1997).
There is sharp unforeseen development in out societal standards concerning acquiring a living presently. We are told that keeping in mind the end goal to be affluent, you don’t have to buckle down, but instead work shrewdly. The significance of the expression “work keen” is dubious. Reasonably talking, there are careers where individuals get a lot of cash for working fewer hours; contrasted with r the greater part a lot of money is a consequence of resilience and diligent work, (Schechter, 2012). Since chances for “working keen” are rare or rather non-existent, a few individuals wind up naughty and other tricky exercises that verge on crimes to get cash. In social orders where individuals like this get and clutch their debased riches, which might stick to common methods of acquiring a living. Everybody will be on the search for an alternate way to create expectations for everyday comforts. This chronically means swinging to debasement. At the point when such circumstances exist in any general public, it will inevitably fold, especially if the pioneers are ensnared.
In the modern society serial killers have been represented by mass media in a variety of ways, for example, in fiction and crime books, video games, documentaries and newspapers. The media in its way fuels the killers in portraying them as heroes where they bring news on how certain serial killers escape captivity from the police over a long period. By covering the cases of serial killers, the media offer publicity making the serial killers heroes without knowing where they cover the horrific scenes of the victims, even though this brings fear to the public it also makes the public be fascinated by the capability and inhumanity of the perpetrators. These may cause an individual to fantasize the acts leading him to become a future serial killer. There have been a radical shift of serial killers to actors.
Fictional movies about serial killers have also been produced where individuals kidnap, torture, rape, murder and even eat the human flesh. Some of these films and documentaries do not have parental guidance and even children get access to them. When young children watch these movies, they tend to grow up being violent. The media also displays the act of serial killing as something that a person can be. The wide circulation of serial killer films and documentaries makes the character of such behavior open to imitation where copycats emerge.
It can be contended that however studies have found that both qualities and environment assume a part in the killer of the individual, the environment assumes a key part in stemming or spreading such behaviors. Killers are in this manner made and not inexorably born. The truth is never in the same class as dreams; this is the reason serial killers slaughter. A wild imaginative capacity influenced by oppressive people that have acquired a notion disdain towards society, trailed by assessments of sexual disillusionment and not having the ability to be socially recognized brings the executing to be a fantasy that is evoked from adolescence.
Serial killers are made and not conceived. Grouped up inside is a memory of brokenness and opinions of low self-respect, disrespect, and insufficiency. This is the time when the seed of requital is planted. From an early age, serial killers vent their indignation, desire, and rejection from an early age towards weak setbacks, for instance, animals, as they get to be out of this stage they swing to vent toward immaculate individuals that take after the tormentors of their beginning life. Pre-oedipal in the family is the thing that isolates serial killers structure other physically misused youngsters; this is the key variable to deranged wildness. Serial killers make their setbacks feel what they felt as youngsters, consequently the cases of butchers from a child to a grown-up. In the wake of being de-railed as youngsters, the reliance of control in playing “GOD” in another person’s life is the thing that drives serial killers into an extreme force rage.
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