Nanotechnology and catalysis application
Au Nanoparticles: Catalyzing Cancer Research
[Name of the Writer]
[Name of the Institution]
Au Nanoparticles: Catalyzing Cancer Research
Metallic nanoparticles are quite widely used in different applications including catalysis, drug delivery, and cancerous tumor treatment. Among the noble metals, gold (Au) nanoparticles have exceptional properties to be used for cancer therapy and diagnosis. In this domain, special areas of interest include enhancing molecular therapeutics understanding for cancer because the conventional approaches to solving the problem are inadequate with the lack of specificity of normal and cancerous cells. It also deals with the very domain of severe toxicity and degradation of the quality of life for the patients. However, metallic nanoparticles alone do not suffice. A diversified modification of bio-molecules for different biomedical investigation would be a part of the research for their use in thermal ablation, and sensitive imaging assays together with gene and drug delivery and subsequent, silencing.
Cancer is one of the leading mortality causes all across the globe that affects 10 million people every year (Jemal et al. 2010). It is quite well established that the cause of cancer is a function of multi-factorial diseases that is generated from the complex mixture of environmental and genetic factors (Balmain et al. 2003; Ludwig and Weinstein, 2005). It has allowed enhanced understanding of cancer on molecular, cellular and genetics levels thereby providing with new targets and therapy strategies (Praetorius and Mandal, 2007). Nonetheless, the very effectiveness of different anticancer drugs is quite limited because of their inability to reach target site with sufficient concentration thereby causing pharmacological effects leading to damage of healthy cells and tissues (Ferrari, 2005; Peer et al. 2007; Wang et al. 2012).
As per studies conducted by Gil and Parak (2008) and Sanvicens and Marco (2008), nanotechnology advances have become a major revolution in the field of medical healthcare treatments along with cancer therapies (Wang et al. 2006). Nanotechnology has offered substantial advancements in different ways for treatment and diagnoses of cancer. It includes new imaging agents (Praetorius and Mandal, 2007), targeted and multifunctional devices for bypassing biological barriers for deliverance of therapeutic agents (Baptista, 2009), and most importantly, monitoring of abrupt molecular alterations (Wickline et al. 2007) thereby allowing preventive actions against the precancerous cells (Heath and Davis, 2008; Gaster et al. 2009).
However, as pointed out by Vinardell and Mitjans (2015), metallic nanoparticles can be used for examination of tumor formation along with its subsequent development and progression because of their core antitumor effects. For doing that, a number of different metallic nanoparticles including iron oxide (Peng et al. 2008; Yu et al. 2008; Gupta and Gupta, 2005), titanium dioxide, cerium oxide (Asati et al. 2006; Celardo et al. 2011; Lin et al. 2006; Wason and Zhao, 2013), and gold (Cai et al. 2008; Huang et al. 2008; Huang et al. 2012; Chanda et al. 2010) nanoparticles. The cancerous tumor can be eliminated through non-toxic radiation having near infrared or oscillating magnetic field having specific wavelengths (Laurent et al. 2011). The core advantage of using nanoparticles is their particulate nature that can readily be redirected towards the cancerous cells via molecular determinants that are readily linked with through covalent bonds (Farokhzad et al. 2004; Paciotti et al. 2004). Under this scenario, magnetic nanoparticles including iron oxide can aid in the external application of the local magnetic field. The selectivity of eradicating the cancerous cells through this approach is quite high that allows it to reduce cell damage to the healthy cells. Spherically shaped iron oxide nanoparticles are used for magnetic hyperthermia of tumor in brains (van Landeghem et al. 2009) and prostate cancer (Johannsen et al. 2010) together with chemotherapy or radiotherapy (Maier-Hauff et al. 2011). The SPIONs (Super-Paramagnetic Iron Oxide NPs) have the capability to be demagnetized with the removal of the magnetic field (Kievit and Zhang, 2011), and it is an important factor that inhibits aggregation of NPs after treatment (Hilger and Kaiser, 2012). However, the particles shapes other than spherical iron oxide nanoparticles should have to be further explored.
Titanium dioxide is other widely known inorganic NPs that are used in PDT (Photo-dynamic Therapy). As per studies conducted by Thevenot et al. (2008), photo-catalyzed TiO2 NPs have found quite efficient in the eradication of cancerous cells. Nevertheless, the usage of in situ inclusion of Ultra-Violet lights has greatly limited its usage in therapy on humans (Trouiller et al. 2009; Blake et al. 1999; Dhawan and Sharma, 2010; Shi et al. 2013). In another study by Cui et al. (2012), it was deduced that titanium dioxide nanoparticles remain a part of the body for a long time having non-toxic nature and high stability.
Another viable candidate includes cerium oxide NPs have their exceptional usage in radio therapy with great selectivity for eradicating cancerous cells (Wason et al. 2013) while providing a protection of surrounding tissues from oxidation stress and radiation damages. Hence, the cerium oxide nanoparticles are quite effectively used in radio-protecting and radio-synthesizing agents (Colon et al. 2010). However, as per a different study conducted by Wason et al. (2013), these NPs cannot be widely used in acidic environments (pH 4.3)
Pre-ExperimentationJain et al. (2007) have highlighted the role of noble metal NPs; more specifically, Au owing to its unique facial surface characteristics, size scale and most importantly, optical properties. The Au nanoparticles have exceptional potential for enhancements in cancer therapy and diagnoses as part of SPR (Surface Plasmon Resonance) with enhanced light absorption and scattering (Spivak et al. 2013; Pavlov et al. 2004; Matsui et al. 2005; Cao et al. 2001). Apart from that, the characteristics of targeted with biomarkers on cancerous cells (Ambrosi et al. 2009) together with efficient imaging properties allow better detection and severity of cancer. Au NPs also possess efficient conversion capabilities of absorbed light into the localized heat that can be further exploited for selective laser photo-thermal cancer therapy (Jain et al. 2006; Pitsillides et al. 2003). It would make Au nanoparticles to be an exceptional candidate for further research by the alteration in particulate properties alterations. It would include the size and shape of NPs dependence for enhancing cancerous cell sensing and targeting. The highly enhanced SPR absorption and scattering of gold NPs makes them the most suitable and benign candidate having effective cell-imaging based cancerous tumor diagnostics as well as photo-thermal therapy (Sokolov et al. 2003; El-Sayed et al. 2005; Hirsch et al. 2003; El-Sayed et al. 2006; Loo et al. 2005; Huang et al. 2006).
Objectives and Goals
The research paper will explore the following areas:
• The factors that can reduce damage to healthy cells using proper monitoring of thermodynamic and biological profiles of cancerous cells.
• Enhanced outlooks for catalyzing the radiotherapy of the cancerous tumor having better tumor targeting.
• The effectiveness of Phototherapy and SPR for enhanced imaging of cancerous tumor.
• Toxicity of Au Nanoparticles’ in vivo and in vitro accumulation and potential toxicity.
Targeted Au metallic nanoparticle requires synthesis and experimentations along with usage of different data analysis software including Minitab, Matlab and Microsoft Excel. Apart from that, simulation of cancerous cell delivery, therapy and effective disposal of Au NPs would also be conducted.
Targeted molecular imaging along with therapy of cancer can be achieved through synthetic conjugation of nanoparticles (Everts el al. 2006) along with antibodies that is directed towards receptors on the cancer cells (Kang et al. 2010). By the adoption of optimal therapy/imaging technique, effective eradication of the variety of cancer cells can be made possible with extension towards other diseases having high mortality rates. However, there are some factors that need optimization that includes scattering and absorption cross-sections of NPs, effective binding of NP bioconjugates with the cancer cells and different antibodies. Other environmental factors including physiological reactions, nanoparticle stability, permeation, blood flow, and tumor extravasations should also be further explored (Ishida et al. 1999; Litzinger et al. 1994; Yuan et al. 1994; Hobbs et al. 1998).
As per Chen et al. (2007), gold nanocages with a potential particle size of around 45 nm can be developed for tailoring the strong adherence properties of Au nanoparticles with targeted molecules with better detection under NIR (Near Infrared) Region for the photo-thermal treatment of the cancerous tumor. As part of the study, experimentations have showed that the nanocages possess an exceptional surface area of 3.48×10-14 m2 that is excessively greater as compared to nanorods and quantum dots. This would also facilitate the conversion of radiations to heat for effective treatment. The nanocages could be conjugated with the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies the EGFR (Epidemic Growth Factor Receptors) that can be over-expressed as part of breast cancer cells’ surface. The study has found the result that the Au nanocages have the capability of absorbing light under NIR region having an intensity of 1.5 W/m2 for the annihilation of cancer cells. The intensity range of 1.5 to 4.7 W/m2 can be further explored for finding the optimal power density range and its interaction with damage cells. Enhancing the results from it would allow exploration of bioconjugated Au nanocages that can serve as a potential for the effective photo-thermal therapeutic cancer treatment agent.
Cancer therapy and imaging research have been developing with the passage of time. However, the development of better and more effective outlooks for highly targeted sensing and eradication of cancerous cells and tissues is of high importance. It would not only reduce the mortality rates of cancer patients but also enhance the outlooks for further research.
Ambrosi, A., Airo, F., & Merkoçi, A. (2009). Enhanced gold nanoparticle based ELISA for a breast cancer biomarker. Analytical chemistry, 82(3), 1151-1156.
Asati, A., Santra, S., Kaittanis, C., & Perez, J. M. (2010). Surface-charge-dependent cell localization and cytotoxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles.ACS nano, 4(9), 5321-5331.
Balmain, A., Gray, J., & Ponder, B. (2003). The genetics and genomics of cancer. Nature genetics, 33, 238-244.
Baptista, P. V. (2009). Cancer nanotechnology-prospects for cancer diagnostics and therapy. Current Cancer Therapy Reviews, 5(2), 80-88.
Blake, D. M., Maness, P. C., Huang, Z., Wolfrum, E. J., Huang, J., & Jacoby, W. A. (1999). Application of the photocatalytic chemistry of titanium dioxide to disinfection and the killing of cancer cells. Separation and purification methods, 28(1), 1-50.
Cai, W., Gao, T., Hong, H., & Sun, J. (2008). Applications of gold nanoparticles in cancer nanotechnology. Nanotechnology, science and applications, 1, 17.
Cao, Y., Jin, R., & Mirkin, C. A. (2001). DNA-modified core-shell Ag/Au nanoparticles. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 123(32), 7961-7962.
Celardo, I., Pedersen, J. Z., Traversa, E., & Ghibelli, L. (2011). Pharmacological potential of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Nanoscale, 3(4), 1411-1420.
Chanda, N., Kan, P., Watkinson, L. D., Shukla, R., Zambre, A., Carmack, T. L., … & Casteel, S. W. (2010). Radioactive gold nanoparticles in cancer therapy: therapeutic efficacy studies of GA-198 AuNP nanoconstruct in prostate tumor–bearing mice. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, 6(2), 201-209.
Chen, J., Wang, D., Xi, J., Au, L., Siekkinen, A., Warsen, A., … & Li, X. (2007). Immuno gold nanocages with tailored optical properties for targeted photothermal destruction of cancer cells. Nano letters, 7(5), 1318-1322.
Colon, J., Hsieh, N., Ferguson, A., Kupelian, P., Seal, S., Jenkins, D. W., & Baker, C. H. (2010). Cerium oxide nanoparticles protect gastrointestinal epithelium from radiation-induced damage by reduction of reactive oxygen species and upregulation of superoxide dismutase 2. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, 6(5), 698-705.
Cui, S., Yin, D., Chen, Y., Di, Y., Chen, H., Ma, Y., … & Gu, Y. (2012). In vivo targeted deep-tissue photodynamic therapy based on near-infrared light triggered upconversion nanoconstruct. ACS nano, 7(1), 676-688.
Dhawan, A., & Sharma, V. (2010). Toxicity assessment of nanomaterials: methods and challenges. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 398(2), 589-605.
El-Sayed, I. H., Huang, X., & El-Sayed, M. A. (2005). Surface plasmon resonance scattering and absorption of anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles in cancer diagnostics: applications in oral cancer. Nano letters,5(5), 829-834.
El-Sayed, I. H., Huang, X., & El-Sayed, M. A. (2006). Selective laser photo-thermal therapy of epithelial carcinoma using anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles. Cancer letters, 239(1), 129-135.
Everts, M., Saini, V., Leddon, J. L., Kok, R. J., Stoff-Khalili, M., Preuss, M. A., … & Nikles, D. E. (2006). Covalently linked Au nanoparticles to a viral vector: potential for combined photothermal and gene cancer therapy. Nano letters, 6(4), 587-591.
Farokhzad, O. C., Jon, S., Khademhosseini, A., Tran, T. N. T., LaVan, D. A., & Langer, R. (2004). Nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates a new approach for targeting prostate cancer cells. Cancer research, 64(21), 7668-7672.
Ferrari, M. (2005). Cancer nanotechnology: opportunities and challenges.Nature Reviews Cancer, 5(3), 161-171.
Gaster, R. S., Hall, D. A., Nielsen, C. H., Osterfeld, S. J., Yu, H., Mach, K. E., … & Wang, S. X. (2009). Matrix-insensitive protein assays push the limits of biosensors in medicine. Nature medicine, 15(11), 1327-1332.
Gil, P. R., & Parak, W. J. (2008). Composite nanoparticles take aim at cancer. ACS nano, 2(11), 2200-2205.
Gupta, A. K., & Gupta, M. (2005). Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Biomaterials, 26(18), 3995-4021.
Heath, J. R., & Davis, M. E. (2008). Nanotechnology and cancer. Annual review of medicine, 59, 251.
Hilger, I., & Kaiser, W. A. (2012). Iron oxide-based nanostructures for MRI and magnetic hyperthermia. Nanomedicine, 7(9), 1443-1459.
Hirsch, L., Stafford, R. J., Bankson, J. A., Sershen, S. R., Rivera, B., Price, R. E., … & West, J. L. (2003). Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(23), 13549-13554.
Hobbs, S. K., Monsky, W. L., Yuan, F., Roberts, W. G., Griffith, L., Torchilin, V. P., & Jain, R. K. (1998). Regulation of transport pathways in tumor vessels: role of tumor type and microenvironment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95(8), 4607-4612.
Huang, K., Ma, H., Liu, J., Huo, S., Kumar, A., Wei, T., … & He, S. (2012). Size-dependent localization and penetration of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles in cancer cells, multicellular spheroids, and tumors in vivo. ACS nano, 6(5), 4483-4493.
Huang, X., El-Sayed, I. H., Qian, W., & El-Sayed, M. A. (2006). Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 128(6), 2115-2120.
Huang, X., Jain, P. K., El-Sayed, I. H., & El-Sayed, M. A. (2008). Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) using gold nanoparticles. Lasers in medical science, 23(3), 217-228.
Ishida, O., Maruyama, K., Sasaki, K., & Iwatsuru, M. (1999). Size-dependent extravasation and interstitial localization of polyethyleneglycol liposomes in solid tumor-bearing mice. International journal of pharmaceutics, 190(1), 49-56.
Jain, P. K., El-Sayed, I. H., & El-Sayed, M. A. (2007). Au nanoparticles target cancer. Nano Today, 2(1), 18-29.
Jain, P. K., Lee, K. S., El-Sayed, I. H., & El-Sayed, M. A. (2006). Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine.The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 110(14), 7238-7248.
Jemal, A., Siegel, R., Xu, J., & Ward, E. (2010). Cancer statistics, 2010.CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 60(5), 277-300.
Johannsen, M., Thiesen, B., Wust, P., & Jordan, A. (2010). Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia for prostate cancer. International Journal of Hyperthermia, 26(8), 790-795.
Kang, B., Mackey, M. A., & El-Sayed, M. A. (2010). Nuclear targeting of gold nanoparticles in cancer cells induces DNA damage, causing cytokinesis arrest and apoptosis. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 132(5), 1517-1519.
Kievit, F. M., & Zhang, M. (2011). Surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted cancer therapy. Accounts of chemical research,44(10), 853-862.
Laurent, S., Dutz, S., Häfeli, U. O., & Mahmoudi, M. (2011). Magnetic fluid hyperthermia: focus on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 166(1), 8-23.
Lin, W., Huang, Y. W., Zhou, X. D., & Ma, Y. (2006). Toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles in human lung cancer cells. International Journal of Toxicology, 25(6), 451-457.
Litzinger, D. C., Buiting, A. M., van Rooijen, N., & Huang, L. (1994). Effect of liposome size on the circulation time and intraorgan distribution of amphipathic poly (ethylene glycol)-containing liposomes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Biomembranes, 1190(1), 99-107.
Loo, C., Lowery, A., Halas, N., West, J., & Drezek, R. (2005). Immunotargeted nanoshells for integrated cancer imaging and therapy. Nano letters, 5(4), 709-711.
Ludwig, J. A., & Weinstein, J. N. (2005). Biomarkers in cancer staging, prognosis and treatment selection. Nature Reviews Cancer, 5(11), 845-856.
Maier-Hauff, K., Ulrich, F., Nestler, D., Niehoff, H., Wust, P., Thiesen, B., … & Jordan, A. (2011). Efficacy and safety of intratumoral thermotherapy using magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles combined with external beam radiotherapy on patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Journal of neuro-oncology, 103(2), 317-324.
Matsui, J., Akamatsu, K., Hara, N., Miyoshi, D., Nawafune, H., Tamaki, K., & Sugimoto, N. (2005). SPR sensor chip for detection of small molecules using molecularly imprinted polymer with embedded gold nanoparticles.Analytical Chemistry, 77(13), 4282-4285.
Paciotti, G. F., Myer, L., Weinreich, D., Goia, D., Pavel, N., McLaughlin, R. E., & Tamarkin, L. (2004). Colloidal gold: a novel nanoparticle vector for tumor directed drug delivery. Drug delivery, 11(3), 169-183.
Pavlov, V., Xiao, Y., Shlyahovsky, B., & Willner, I. (2004). Aptamer-functionalized Au nanoparticles for the amplified optical detection of thrombin. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 126(38), 11768-11769.
Peer, D., Karp, J. M., Hong, S., Farokhzad, O. C., Margalit, R., & Langer, R. (2007). Nanocarriers as an emerging platform for cancer therapy. Nature nanotechnology, 2(12), 751-760.
Peng, X. H., Qian, X., Mao, H., & Wang, A. Y. (2008). Targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor imaging and therapy. International journal of nanomedicine, 3(3), 311.
Pitsillides, C. M., Joe, E. K., Wei, X., Anderson, R. R., & Lin, C. P. (2003). Selective cell targeting with light-absorbing microparticles and nanoparticles.Biophysical journal, 84(6), 4023-4032.
Praetorius, N. P., & Mandal, T. K. (2007). Engineered nanoparticles in cancer therapy. Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation, 1(1), 37-51.
Sanvicens, N., & Marco, M. P. (2008). Multifunctional nanoparticles–properties and prospects for their use in human medicine. Trends in biotechnology, 26(8), 425-433.
Shi, H., Magaye, R., Castranova, V., & Zhao, J. (2013). Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: a review of current toxicological data. Part Fibre Toxicol,10(1), 15.
Sokolov, K., Follen, M., Aaron, J., Pavlova, I., Malpica, A., Lotan, R., & Richards-Kortum, R. (2003). Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles. Cancer research, 63(9), 1999-2004.
Spivak, M. Y., Bubnov, R. V., Yemets, I. M., Lazarenko, L. M., Timoshok, N. O., & Ulberg, Z. R. (2013). Gold nanoparticles-the theranostic challenge for PPPM: nanocardiology application. EPMA J, 4(1), 18.
Thevenot, P., Cho, J., Wavhal, D., Timmons, R. B., & Tang, L. (2008). Surface chemistry influences cancer killing effect of TiO 2 nanoparticles.Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, 4(3), 226-236.
Trouiller, B., Reliene, R., Westbrook, A., Solaimani, P., & Schiestl, R. H. (2009). Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce DNA damage and genetic instability in vivo in mice. Cancer research, 69(22), 8784-8789.
van Landeghem, F. K., Maier-Hauff, K., Jordan, A., Hoffmann, K. T., Gneveckow, U., Scholz, R., … & Von Deimling, A. (2009). Post-mortem studies in glioblastoma patients treated with thermotherapy using magnetic nanoparticles. Biomaterials, 30(1), 52-57.
Vinardell, M. P., & Mitjans, M. (2015). Antitumor Activities of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles. Nanomaterials, 5(2), 1004-1021.
Wang, A. Z., Langer, R., & Farokhzad, O. C. (2012). Nanoparticle delivery of cancer drugs. Annual review of medicine, 63, 185-198.
Wang, X., Yang, L., Chen, Z. G., & Shin, D. M. (2008). Application of nanotechnology in cancer therapy and imaging. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 58(2), 97-110.
Wason, M. S., & Zhao, J. (2013). Cerium oxide nanoparticles: potential applications for cancer and other diseases. American journal of translational research, 5(2), 126.
Wason, M. S., Colon, J., Das, S., Seal, S., Turkson, J., Zhao, J., & Baker, C. H. (2013). Sensitization of pancreatic cancer cells to radiation by cerium oxide nanoparticle-induced ROS production. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, 9(4), 558-569.
Wickline, S. A., Neubauer, A. M., Winter, P. M., Caruthers, S. D., & Lanza, G. M. (2007). Molecular imaging and therapy of atherosclerosis with targeted nanoparticles. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 25(4), 667-680.
Xu, C., & Qu, X. (2014). Cerium oxide nanoparticle: a remarkably versatile rare earth nanomaterial for biological applications. NPG Asia Materials, 6(3), e90.
Yu, M. K., Jeong, Y. Y., Park, J., Park, S., Kim, J. W., Min, J. J., … & Jon, S. (2008). Drug‐loaded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for combined cancer imaging and therapy in vivo. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 47(29), 5362-5365.
Yuan, F., Leunig, M., Huang, S. K., Berk, D. A., Papahadjopoulos, D., & Jain, R. K. (1994). Mirovascular permeability and interstitial penetration of sterically stabilized (stealth) liposomes in a human tumor xenograft. Cancer research, 54(13), 3352-3356.