Nanotechnology and catalysis application

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Nanotechnology and catalysis application

Category: Research Proposal

Subcategory: Biochemistry

Level: PhD

Pages: 2

Words: 1100

Au Nanoparticles: Catalyzing Cancer Research
[Name of the Writer]
[Name of the Institution]

Au Nanoparticles: Catalyzing Cancer Research
Introduction
Metallic nanoparticles are quite widely used in different applications including catalysis, drug delivery, and cancerous tumor treatment. Among the noble metals, gold (Au) nanoparticles have exceptional properties to be used for cancer therapy and diagnosis. In this domain, special areas of interest include enhancing molecular therapeutics understanding for cancer because the conventional approaches to solving the problem are inadequate with the lack of specificity of normal and cancerous cells. It also deals with the very domain of severe toxicity and degradation of the quality of life for the patients. However, metallic nanoparticles alone do not suffice. A diversified modification of bio-molecules for different biomedical investigation would be a part of the research for their use in thermal ablation, and sensitive imaging assays together with gene and drug delivery and subsequent, silencing.
Background
Cancer is one of the leading mortality causes all across the globe that affects 10 million people every year (Jemal et al. 2010). It is quite well established that the cause of cancer is a function of multi-factorial diseases that is generated from the complex mixture of environmental and genetic factors (Balmain et al. 2003; Ludwig and Weinstein, 2005). It has allowed enhanced understanding of cancer on molecular, cellular and genetics levels thereby providing with new targets and therapy strategies (Praetorius and Mandal, 2007). Nonetheless, the very effectiveness of different anticancer drugs is quite limited because of their inability to reach target site with sufficient concentration thereby causing pharmacological effects leading to damage of healthy cells and tissues (Ferrari, 2005; Peer et al. 2007; Wang et al. 2012).
As per studies conducted by Gil and Parak (2008) and Sanvicens and Marco (2008), nanotechnology advances have become a major revolution in the field of medical healthcare treatments along with cancer therapies (Wang et al. 2006). Nanotechnology has offered substantial advancements in different ways for treatment and diagnoses of cancer. It includes new imaging agents (Praetorius and Mandal, 2007), targeted and multifunctional devices for bypassing biological barriers for deliverance of therapeutic agents (Baptista, 2009), and most importantly, monitoring of abrupt molecular alterations (Wickline et al. 2007) thereby allowing preventive actions against the precancerous cells (Heath and Davis, 2008; Gaster et al. 2009).
However, as pointed out by Vinardell and Mitjans (2015), metallic nanoparticles can be used for examination of tumor formation along with its subsequent development and progression because of their core antitumor effects. For doing that, a number of different metallic nanoparticles including iron oxide (Peng et al. 2008; Yu et al. 2008; Gupta and Gupta, 2005), titanium dioxide, cerium oxide (Asati et al. 2006; Celardo et al. 2011; Lin et al. 2006; Wason and Zhao, 2013), and gold (Cai et al. 2008; Huang et al. 2008; Huang et al. 2012; Chanda et al. 2010) nanoparticles. The cancerous tumor can be eliminated through non-toxic radiation having near infrared or oscillating magnetic field having specific wavelengths (Laurent et al. 2011). The core advantage of using nanoparticles is their particulate nature that can readily be redirected towards the cancerous cells via molecular determinants that are readily linked with through covalent bonds (Farokhzad et al. 2004; Paciotti et al. 2004). Under this scenario, magnetic nanoparticles including iron oxide can aid in the external application of the local magnetic field. The selectivity of eradicating the cancerous cells through this approach is quite high that allows it to reduce cell damage to the healthy cells. Spherically shaped iron oxide nanoparticles are used for magnetic hyperthermia of tumor in brains (van Landeghem et al. 2009) and prostate cancer (Johannsen et al. 2010) together with chemotherapy or radiotherapy (Maier-Hauff et al. 2011). The SPIONs (Super-Paramagnetic Iron Oxide NPs) have the capability to be demagnetized with the removal of the magnetic field (Kievit and Zhang, 2011), and it is an important factor that inhibits aggregation of NPs after treatment (Hilger and Kaiser, 2012). However, the particles shapes other than spherical iron oxide nanoparticles should have to be further explored.
Titanium dioxide is other widely known inorganic NPs that are used in PDT (Photo-dynamic Therapy). As per studies conducted by Thevenot et al. (2008), photo-catalyzed TiO2 NPs have found quite efficient in the eradication of cancerous cells. Nevertheless, the usage of in situ inclusion of Ultra-Violet lights has greatly limited its usage in therapy on humans (Trouiller et al. 2009; Blake et al. 1999; Dhawan and Sharma, 2010; Shi et al. 2013). In another study by Cui et al. (2012), it was deduced that titanium dioxide nanoparticles remain a part of the body for a long time having non-toxic nature and high stability.
Another viable candidate includes cerium oxide NPs have their exceptional usage in radio therapy with great selectivity for eradicating cancerous cells (Wason et al. 2013) while providing a protection of surrounding tissues from oxidation stress and radiation damages. Hence, the cerium oxide nanoparticles are quite effectively used in radio-protecting and radio-synthesizing agents (Colon et al. 2010). However, as per a different study conducted by Wason et al. (2013), these NPs cannot be widely used in acidic environments (pH 4.3)
Pre-ExperimentationJain et al. (2007) have highlighted the role of noble metal NPs; more specifically, Au owing to its unique facial surface characteristics, size scale and most importantly, optical properties. The Au nanoparticles have exceptional potential for enhancements in cancer therapy and diagnoses as part of SPR (Surface Plasmon Resonance) with enhanced light absorption and scattering (Spivak et al. 2013; Pavlov et al. 2004; Matsui et al. 2005; Cao et al. 2001). Apart from that, the characteristics of targeted with biomarkers on cancerous cells (Ambrosi et al. 2009) together with efficient imaging properties allow better detection and severity of cancer. Au NPs also possess efficient conversion capabilities of absorbed light into the localized heat that can be further exploited for selective laser photo-thermal cancer therapy (Jain et al. 2006; Pitsillides et al. 2003). It would make Au nanoparticles to be an exceptional candidate for further research by the alteration in particulate properties alterations. It would include the size and shape of NPs dependence for enhancing cancerous cell sensing and targeting. The highly enhanced SPR absorption and scattering of gold NPs makes them the most suitable and benign candidate having effective cell-imaging based cancerous tumor diagnostics as well as photo-thermal therapy (Sokolov et al. 2003; El-Sayed et al. 2005; Hirsch et al. 2003; El-Sayed et al. 2006; Loo et al. 2005; Huang et al. 2006).
Objectives and Goals
The research paper will explore the following areas:
• The factors that can reduce damage to healthy cells using proper monitoring of thermodynamic and biological profiles of cancerous cells.
• Enhanced outlooks for catalyzing the radiotherapy of the cancerous tumor having better tumor targeting.
• The effectiveness of Phototherapy and SPR for enhanced imaging of cancerous tumor.
• Toxicity of Au Nanoparticles’ in vivo and in vitro accumulation and potential toxicity.
Research Methodology
Targeted Au metallic nanoparticle requires synthesis and experimentations along with usage of different data analysis software including Minitab, Matlab and Microsoft Excel. Apart from that, simulation of cancerous cell delivery, therapy and effective disposal of Au NPs would also be conducted.
Targeted molecular imaging along with therapy of cancer can be achieved through synthetic conjugation of nanoparticles (Everts el al. 2006) along with antibodies that is directed towards receptors on the cancer cells (Kang et al. 2010). By the adoption of optimal therapy/imaging technique, effective eradication of the variety of cancer cells can be made possible with extension towards other diseases having high mortality rates. However, there are some factors that need optimization that includes scattering and absorption cross-sections of NPs, effective binding of NP bioconjugates with the cancer cells and different antibodies. Other environmental factors including physiological reactions, nanoparticle stability, permeation, blood flow, and tumor extravasations should also be further explored (Ishida et al. 1999; Litzinger et al. 1994; Yuan et al. 1994; Hobbs et al. 1998).
As per Chen et al. (2007), gold nanocages with a potential particle size of around 45 nm can be developed for tailoring the strong adherence properties of Au nanoparticles with targeted molecules with better detection under NIR (Near Infrared) Region for the photo-thermal treatment of the cancerous tumor. As part of the study, experimentations have showed that the nanocages possess an exceptional surface area of 3.48×10-14 m2 that is excessively greater as compared to nanorods and quantum dots. This would also facilitate the conversion of radiations to heat for effective treatment. The nanocages could be conjugated with the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies the EGFR (Epidemic Growth Factor Receptors) that can be over-expressed as part of breast cancer cells’ surface. The study has found the result that the Au nanocages have the capability of absorbing light under NIR region having an intensity of 1.5 W/m2 for the annihilation of cancer cells. The intensity range of 1.5 to 4.7 W/m2 can be further explored for finding the optimal power density range and its interaction with damage cells. Enhancing the results from it would allow exploration of bioconjugated Au nanocages that can serve as a potential for the effective photo-thermal therapeutic cancer treatment agent.
Conclusion
Cancer therapy and imaging research have been developing with the passage of time. However, the development of better and more effective outlooks for highly targeted sensing and eradication of cancerous cells and tissues is of high importance. It would not only reduce the mortality rates of cancer patients but also enhance the outlooks for further research.
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