Microbiology and Gonorrhea
Microbiology and Gonorrhea
Microbiology and Gonorrhea
Microbiology and pathogenic nature of gonorrhea
Major Scientific Discoveries of gonorrhea treatment
The Life Cycle of gonorrhea infection and its transmission
Why gonorrhea quickly become antibiotic resistant?
Recent advancement in gonorrhea treatment
Restate the thesis explaining how betterment could be done
Prospect of gonorrhea research and its tomorrow’s major advancements
Gonorrhea is a condition of clinical that results from the pathogen of sexually transmitted bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhea. The getting of this pathogen often involves many sites of mucus in the lower part of the female genitalia. These parts include the cervix, urethra, and the glands of the skene. It can also transfer to the upper genitalia like the abdominal cavity and the tubes of the uterus. Gonorrhea is one of the most dangerous and most spread infections among the sexually transmitted diseases and has a very high rate in different countries in the world, our country included. The children and women are always infected excessively since early infections often don’t have symptoms and since the infections are always associated with serious and dangerous sequelae. Screening and treatment of the gonorrhea are very important practice if at all we want to do away with this dangerous infection. The screening is always recommended every year for every woman who is sexually active who are at a high risk of being infected and also the women who have an history of being infected by gonorrhea previously, people doing commercial sex work, people with many sex partners or even new ones, or even people with infected with HIV/AIDS. Centers for disease control or CDC has often recommended prevention of gonorrhea and treatment with the antibiotics such as cephalosporin.
Gonorrhea refers to a sexually transmitted infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhea bacteria greatly identified microbiologically using the name Gram-negative diplococcus intracellular. The bacterium is often acquired at different sites of mucus in female genitalia. Gonorrhea has been present for a very log time, almost 1900 years. Gonorrhea has the human beings as the sole and major host and is transferred from one human to another majorly through sexual intercourse. There are major discoveries concerning this disease that have been reported in many years. One of the discoveries is the how women and children are more vulnerable to be infected by gonorrhea compare to men. The reason for this being that the infection may be subclinical or asymptomatic and also since the infection extensions are always concerned with serious and even dangerous sequelae (Turner, Brown, 2014, p. 106).
Screening was also invented to detect the disease in individuals. It helps in identification and prevention of the infection and even minimizing of the spread to the upper genitalia of females, vertical and also the horizontal transmission of the disease. The treatment was also found to be complicated by the resistant nature of the bacteria, which forced people to come up with different ways of dealing with this problem in the hospitals.
Thesis statement: There are several discoveries and advancement in treatment, prevention, and transmission of gonorrhea disease. Gonorrhea is equally becoming resistant to the antibiotics used in the treatment. The gonorrhea disease has got unique life cycle in human being who continues to grow if not treated in the early stages.
The Life Cycle of gonorrhea infection and its transmission
There are five faces of gonorrhea infection and transmission. These phases are majorly connected to the symptoms observed in the patient. Most of the women with gonorrhea don’t experience symptoms and that brig us into our first phase or stage of gonorrhea infection.
Phase 1: Asymptomatic stage
In this phase a person with gonorrhea is just a carrier for the disease and infection but there are no symptoms in him/her. The infections are also called subclinical infections or silent clinical to show that the person does not experience any symptoms of the disease. Knowing that the patient is in this stage is very important since there will be development of symptoms later in his/her life with the infection. Hence the patient will need wait and watch or even early treatment of the gonorrhea. If the situation of asymptomatic is not managed well, then the patients will later experience hyperlipidemia and high blood pressure. The person infected at this stage may always be infectious and infect others without knowing. This condition may not be detected in the normal life of someone until he/she goes to test through medical tests. Some individuals may be very resistant and remain at this stage over a very long time (Dowell, 2012, p.69).
Phase 2: Incubation
This is the phase between the exposure to the pathogen or bacteria causing gonorrhea and the time symptoms are first seen. In the last stages of this phase, the signs begin to be seen. In this disease phase, the bacteria multiply to reach a certain level where they can start producing signs and symptoms. This period often takes from two to 14 days with many symptoms start to be seen in the 4th, 5th, and the 6th day after the infection. In some cases though very rare, gonorrhea also causes joint infections in this state of the disease.
Phase 3: Virginal discharge
This phase only occurs to the women. Here the fluids that are contained in the body are expelled from the vagina. The fluid often comes out in different colors although the most common colors are yellow, white, and green. In some cases the fluid discharged can even be in mucus form, and the condition is called blennorrhea. This is a condition, which can also be associated with gonorrhea most of the time.
Phase 4: Pain with Intercourse (Dyspareunia)
This stage of infection is mostly common in women than men. Here the women feel pain while having sexual intercourse with a male person. The pain may majorly be on the external genitalia surface or the internal deeper within the pelvis when a great pressure is exerted to the cervix. The pain is caused by social, physical, or psychological problems during the time of sexual intercourse. The pain can also be acquired from the family lineage of the patient. The physical causes must then be treated immediately the patient before the stage lead to more severe infections recognizes them (Dowell, 2012, p.69).
Phase 5: Urethritis
This is the men inflammation of the penile-urethra. This affects only men hence this phase of gonorrhea is majorly for men only. This condition makes men have real difficultly on urinating and great pain while doing so. This condition is indicated by the purulent, usually indicated by the nature of gonococcus. A clear discharge can also be experienced, which is due to the nature of non-gonococcus. In this phase another thing, which can happen, is dysuria majorly due to experiencing a lot of pain while urinating?
The reason why gonorrhea is quickly becoming antibiotic resistant
Gonorrhea has gone further and is soon developing a real resistant to several antibiotic drugs majorly administered to the patients. This is solely due to the change of the gonorrhea strain, in fact, the strain that people get today is totally different from what people acquired about ten years ago. The best antibiotics that have always been used on gonorrhea like tetracycline and penicillin have all been ineffective of late and can never treat the disease anymore. This has made the patients infected by gonorrhea to have few options in treatment left. Several pieces of research have shown the reason the resistant has been developed over the past few years.
The results of the researches showed that the increase in resistance leads to several more gonorrhea cases since being infected with a strain resistant increases the time it takes to be treated providing the infected person with enough time to continue infecting others. The real reason the resistant is growing very fast is due to the over prescription of the antibiotics used in the treatment of gonorrhea. This makes the pathogens have great opportunity to overpower the drugs used for treatment. Some people have made great progress to bring new drugs to the market in a couple of years to treat the disease. Another reason the disease is becoming resistant to drugs is because it highly spreads in people, and its infections can easily be missed.
Treatment of Gonorrhea
After testing and a close examination of the patient, the samples are taken to the laboratory in order to be tested for Neisseria a gonorrhea bacterium, which majorly takes a minimum of a week to be clearly examined. The testing sometimes varies according to the country the patient is being treated. Some countries have poor facilities, which makes the testing process to take more time while some have good facilities that make the process to be very fast and immediate results can be found.
After the testing, the doctor will always check the sample for the present bacteria and confirm the infection immediately. The patient will then be given an antibiotic in liquid, injection, or tablet form for the treatment. In any case the patient is allergic or has problem to any of the antibiotics, or in any case a patient is pregnant, the doctor must be informed immediately before he/she administers the medicine since it can highly influence the options of treatment. After the course treatment is provided the patient must complete it, be it a dose or injection even if she/he feels the symptoms are disappearing to ensure that the gonorrhea is completely treated. The doctor will then discuss and answer any questions concerning the disease and will inquire about partners of the patient and any other person the patient has had sexual intercourse with since they are also in a great risk of having the disease and testing should be performed on them. The patients are then encouraged to have any sexual intercourse with anyone until the disease is confirmed to be over and confirmed by the health officer or doctor (Turner, Brown, 2014, p. 106).
Prevention of gonorrhea
Just as the case of many sexually transmitted infections, gonorrhea can be prevented through the correct use of condoms during sexual intercourse. It can also be almost cleared through limiting or minimizing sexual activities or practices to a monogamous mutual relationship with someone who is uninfected.
I would greatly recommend the doctors to perform screening and treatment to all women who are sexually active including the pregnant ones. This will ensure that all the possibilities of people contacting this disease are limited. Threw should also be routine screening to help in the treatment of gonorrhea in men who are at great risk of being infected. This can be detected when a person have clinical symptoms since the asymptomatic infection experienced in men is really lower compared to women. Screening should also not be performed in pregnant women since that can affect the baby inside. A normal testing should be carried out if at all gonorrhea is thought to have affected the woman. A prophylactic medication of ocular topical should also be performed in babies who have been born against the threat of ophthalmic gonococcus neon acorum to increase the health standard of the newborns in the country, which further increases the infant mortality rate.
Recent advancement in gonorrhea treatment
There has been a great recent advancement in the treatment of gonorrhea. The bacteria causing gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhea) has been major recently especially in areas where people often involve in sexual activities and sex works. Recent reports have identified the most dangerous pathogens causing these disease and measures are already being taken to prevent or kill these organisms (Willey & Sherwood, 2014 p.34). CDC report indicated recently that the serious and most dangerous pathogens include; MRSA and tuberculosis, which are resistant to drugs are very serious and appropriate measure, must be taken immediately to curb with their effect. The hospitals have also been advised by the report to prevent the infections from happening ensure they contain or prevent the resistant bacteria and most importantly ensure that only patients who require antibiotics are given. Most importantly everyone has been advised to help in implementations of the strategies put forward to do away with this dangerous infection.
Appropriate measures must be taken to deal with this dangerous disease, which has killed many people due to the fear of being treated. Although gonorrhea has become resistant to several antibiotics used in its treatment, professionals have come up with other methods of treating the infection in different countries. There have also been several recent advancements to deal adequately with the treatment of this disease as the identification of the most dangerous type of bacteria causing the disease and appropriate measures are also being put in place to reduce or even totally do away with the disease.
Restatement of thesis: There are several discoveries and advancement in treatment, prevention, and transmission of gonorrhea disease. Gonorrhea is equally becoming resistant to the antibiotics used in the treatment. The gonorrhea disease has got unique life cycle in human being who continues to grow if not treated in the early stages.
Encyclopedia Brittanica (2015). Gonorrhea. Retrieved from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/238522/gonococcusCredo Reference. Mosby’s Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions. (2015) Gonorrhea. Retrieved from: http://public.credoreference.com/content/entry/ehsmosbymed/gonorrhea/0?searchId=838fa03b-d0ea-11e4-a3b3-12c1d36507ee&result=1.
Chesson, H., Kickcaldy, R., Gift, T., Owusu-Edusei Jr, K. & Weinstock, H. (2014). Ciprofloxacin Resistance and Gonorrhea Incidence Rates in 17 Cities, United States, 1991-2006.Retrieved from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.vlib.excelsior.edu/eds/detail/detail?vid=2&sid=2aff63e8-d273-4044-b892-972da8a4f8c6%40sessionmgr4003&hid=4210&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=95101579Turner, R., Brown, L., Davidson, C. & Roberts, C. (2014). Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of gonorrhea. Retrieved from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.vlib.excelsior.edu/eds/detail/detail?vid=3&sid=2aff63e8-d273-4044-b892-972da8a4f8c6%40sessionmgr4003&hid=4210&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=94790679Natoli, L., Maher, L., Shephard, M., Hengel, B., Tangey, A., Badman, S., Ward, J. & Guy, R. (2014). Point-of-Care Testing for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea: Implications for Clinical Practice.Retrieved from:
http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.vlib.excelsior.edu/eds/detail/detail?vid=4&sid=2aff63e8-d273-4044-b892-972da8a4f8c6%40sessionmgr4003&hid=4210&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=96860778Willey, J., Sherwood, L. (2014). Human Disease Caused by Bacteria. Prescott’s Microbiology (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Dowell, D., Tian, L., Stover, J., Donnelly, J., Martins, S., Erbelding, E., Pino, R., Weinstock, H. & Newman, L. (2012). Change in Fluoroquinolone Use for Gonorrhea Following Publication of Revised Treatment Guidelines. Retrieved from: