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Category: Dissertation

Subcategory: Computer Engineering

Level: Masters

Pages: 55

Words: 15125

by (Name)
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Professor (Tutor)
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The City and State where it is located
DATE @ “dddd, MMMM dd, yyyy” Thursday, January 14, 2016

Table of Contents
Procurement and Nutrition PAGEREF _Toc440459148 h 11-18
Procurement and Health PAGEREF _Toc440459149 h 19-23
Procurement and the benefits of education and alternative education PAGEREF _Toc440459150 h 24-31
Procurement and the use of technology within health PAGEREF _Toc440459151 h 32-37
Procurement and the use of technology within education PAGEREF _Toc440459152 h 38-47
Procurement and Safe sex PAGEREF _Toc440459153 h 48-55
Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc440459154 h 56-58
References PAGEREF _Toc440459155 h 59-61

HOW PROCUREMENT CAN MAKE AN IMPACT IN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT – IN AN AFRICAN 3RD WORLD DEVELOPING COUNTRYAbstractThis paper seeks to establish how procurement can make an impact in an African 3rd world developing country. Concerning Ethiopia, the research provides ways in which procurement can be used to procure educational services, programs, and campaigns that can raise awareness about health, literacy and everything around them and also. It also explains how procurement can help the illiterates in the developing countries to get a good understanding of various concepts such as nutrition, health, benefits of education and alternative education use of technology with health, use of technology within education and safe sex. Basing education as the fundamental foundation for raising awareness, the research examines the role played by procurement in raising the awareness of the concepts above.

IntroductionProcurement process requires a good manufacturer-supplier relationship it involves the purchase of products and services by the government or parastatal during the process of implementation of projects, provision of services such as health, education services, infrastructure, technology and other social aspects. Developing countries have a need for well-functioning procurement systems since procurements account for a high total expenditure. Unlike in developed countries, public procurement in 3rd world countries does not necessarily meet the international standards, and very little or no review of the procurement policies are made in some of these countries. However, aid organization and the World Bank have got involved by making significant changes in procurement systems, instead of using the unreformed and inefficient systems. This is crucial since a good procurement system is a crucial condition for the transparent and appropriate expenditure of both internal and external funds. Donors and other sources of foreign funds may choose to use their systems of procurement if the country involved lacks an appropriate procurement system
In Sub-Saharan African countries, procurement systems are characterized by little or no institutional coordination that involves vested interests, inside dealing and interference. They also lack professional expertise and knowledge in contracting function and purchasing at different levels. They are also characterized by outdated procedures and regulations and hence they fail to comply with established policies, regulation, and procedures. The processes of procurement in 3rd world countries are also characterized by the lack of transparency and public accountability. They too are prone to inadequate financial planning
Reforms should be made to procurement systems in the developing counties so as to ensure transparency that is characterized by equality, comprehensive and standards tender documents and policy, regulations and procedures that allow for public scrutiny. The policy improvements ought to ensure that effective means for handling corruption and misappropriation of funds are established to ensure financial accountability.
The chances of occurrence of risks should he greatly reduced so as to encourage investment. Moreover, the national budgeting procedure should be integrated with the public procurement; technology should also be utilized in procurement processes through electronic commerce so as to satisfy customer needs. Procurement processes, especially in the developing countries, are faced with many corruption cases that are usually done in utmost secrecy. Therefore, projects are not completed in time or sometimes they are not done at all. Construction works fails to meet the required performance standards or sometimes costs are wrongly computed. To achieve the benefits of procurement; the following measures should be considered, professional staff that manages procurement function, a transparent and competitive procurement process that is responsible for public bids opening, a right of review for bidders, the disclosure of all relevant information, accountability and advertisement of all upcoming procurement opportunities. (Hoekman, 1996)
This study will focus on Sub-Saharan Africa especially Ethiopia. Ethiopia is among the highly populates country with 85 million people. Around 30 percent of the population obtains an income of less than US$1.26 per day; hence, most people have a low standard of living. In the Horn of Africa, Ethiopia has emerged the most stable country; however the country faces challenges in both internal and external security. Despite the economic challenges, the country has made significant development steps, since the 1985 famine. The productive Safety Net Program that was installed by the government has addressed the challenge of food insecurity and other development challenges. The country, therefore, continues to experience a steady economic growth and has improved its procurement systems. In agriculture productivity, the country now utilizes modern technology and industrialization to ensure agribusiness stability; it has imported products like farm machinery, pesticides, fertilizers. The country as well outsources agriculture expertise and utilizes modern irrigation methods and hence it has been able to prevent the challenge of food insecurity. Moreover, the country invests in national programs that are aimed at meeting high productive capacity, building resilience and household food needs that have greatly increased food security for the Ethiopian people. The countries’ government policies allow for a good environment for both local and foreign investment hence ensuring business and economic growth as well as human development (Yülek and Taylor, 2012)
Canada with its international development efforts is among the largest bilateral donor in Ethiopia. Canada, therefore, focuses on achieving food security in Ethiopia, democracy, creating awareness on human rights, ensuring and sustainable economic growth and democracy, Canada also supports the health programs in Ethiopia. In the donation process, Canada used the procurement systems of Ethiopia. These have therefore achieved sustainable agriculture productivity and hence increase in food security across the nation; it has also resulted in the creation of employment opportunities for small and medium-sized companies. Citizens have also made significant development stapes in achieving democracy out of their participation in democratic processes.
Through proper procurement systems, the growth and development strategies aim at making various achievements that include, sustaining equitable and fast economic growth, ensuring good governance, creating a conducive environment for industrial and economic growth, expanding the quality of social development and infrastructural development. The donation through good procurement systems also aims at empowering the youth and women so as to achieve equitable distribution of benefits. To achieve good health for newborns, children, and mothers, the donations are aimed at enhancing the nutritional status of lactating mothers, pregnant women, and children. To achieve food security, Canada is committed to counter the causes of food insecurity so as to improve the capacity of agricultural production and hence boost the nutritional status of Ethiopians. This will also increase the farmer’s income, create employment and improve the production techniques. Through procurement, Ethiopia utilizes an improved technology in the conservation of soil and water and hence it can avoid the unnecessary environmental degradation that is likely to lead to food insecurity. Procurement in both donation and public projects has helped the Ethiopian government to improve infrastructure, especially in the transport sector hence enabling access of farm products to markets and easy movements for the farmers. The capacity of institutions that support farming activities has also increased due better procurement systems hence improving the capacity of farmers and agriculture productivity,
The reliable procurement systems in Ethiopia have also led to sustainable Economic growth, for instance, donations, and public procurement has enabled the nation to develop a diversified economy that has lead to the creation of employment and addition of labor force outside agricultural activities. Procurement has also helped in creating a supportive environment that has enabled significant developments in small business, the involvement of women and youth in economic activity hence leading to growth in the private and extractive sector in a way that enables sustainable economic gains, especially at community level. The denotations and procurement systems aim at, increasing earnings and private businesses, especially those owned by women and youth, increase the sources and access to finance for small businesses, review the policies and regulations regarding setting up a small or middle-sized company. Lastly to improve the capacity of both local and national government to manage the extractive sector for social and economic growth. Procurement as also enabled the implementations of antipoverty programs, as it enables lower transaction costs as a result of harmonized aid and commitment.
Sub-Saharan Africa has always been committed to achieving freedom and economic growth; however most of these countries have been faced with various calamities, including civil wars, famine, drought, floods, starvation, diseases, and lack of the ability to achieve economic growth among others. Most nations have therefore shifted their attention to free enterprise prosperity and democratic freedom. Poor leadership has also been a challenge to some African nations, including, Zaire, Angola, Somalia Liberia among others. Has leader utilize dictatorship and authoritative regimes that are unstable and which pave the way to violence and anarchy, rather than the representative rule. Fortunately some other countries including Ethiopia, have always been determined to strive and achieve significant reforms to their economic and political systems therefore, they have developed strong roots in the democratization process and this sprit has spread to other African nations.
The new political and economic systems in Africa have made the process of procurement possible between the developed and developing nations. For instance, the US record exports worth $5.4 Billion in 1992 which was the largest record in a decade with the leading exports of corn, food grains and wheat, Ethiopia has achieved a long-term productivity capacity due to proper procurement systems with the United States. The US has recorded sales of sources of energy like gas field equipment and oil, parts and complete aircraft, computers, motor vehicles, construction machinery, telecommunication equipment, electric generators, farm machinery and industrial chemicals. Supply of these products has also enabled effective ways of dealing with emergencies as the country strives to develop they own infrastructure. The African nations also receive products like chemical and medical equipment as well as pharmaceuticals, pesticides, fertilizers, used apparel and paper. The exchange of products and services in the process of procurement is effected by favorable exchange rates. For instance, the US enhances its competitiveness against European and Japanese products due to its favorable exchange rates. The US as well purchase most of Africa’s primary commodities due to its financial strength, it imports products like nonferrous metals and crude oil.
Procurement also demands good government policies, for instance, the US government policy regarding Africa has greatly boosted the transactions of goods and services between America and Africa. Due to changes in the business environment after the post-cold world war in 1992, the US federal agencies undertook a US policy review that added emphasis to commercial concerns as the US firms given equal access to Africa’s commercial opportunities. The policy review also emphasized the need for non-discriminatory treatment, open market and the efforts of the African nations to liberalize investment rules and trade. US companies participate fully in project procurement, as ensured by the representatives in commerce departments in the African Development Banks and World Bank, which are the two major sources of Africa’s infrastructure development projects.

Procurement and NutritionNutrition means studying food at work in human bodies. It also refers to the source of energy to the humans. Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, fiber, vitamins, and minerals are the essential nutrients that are required for life. Water is also important since it acts as a solvent for every solvent ingredient that exists in the blood as well as cells. The absorption of these nutrients starts right from digestion, as they are distributed to help in the metabolic processes that exist in a human body. Good nutrition is, therefore, eating healthy foods to give you the right amount of nutrients and in the required combinations. It requires one to have nutrition knowledge to make smart choices concerning what foods to eat. It is only after such knowledge that one procures foods that can offer optimum health in one’s lifetime.
Good nutrition can help one in avoiding obesity, chronic diseases and other illness that are associated with nutrition. Attaining proper nutrition is a major step in building and maintains good health. One is said to be healthy when he or she is complete in all aspects. These aspects include the physical, mental and also social well-being. A healthy being, therefore, has a healthy mind, a healthy body, and a healthy spirit. Nutrition is crucial in all levels of life, right from infancy, adolescence, adulthood to maturity. It can provide a solution to challenges that exist in the modern world, including pollution, stress, sexual vitality and chronic diseases. Good nutrition makes one healthy, which is seen as acquiring freedom. A healthy being is free to enjoy life and realize his or her full potential. A poor diet can result in adverse effect on one’s health and deny him the freedom required in achieving goals in life.
Some factors influence nutritional status. The first factor is the availability of food. Stable food availability affects the eating behaviors of people. The variety of foods matter too. People cannot improve their diet if they spend most of their income on items that are not related to food. People can only realize full nutritional benefits of food if the price of the food items is affordable, and when the market offers a variety of food items. Approximately two-thirds of the people in developing countries are found in the rural areas. Most of them farm and rare animals for their source of food. The benefits of some food crops which are crucial for instance roots, pulses, legumes and tubers have not been fully realized up to now. This is due to lack of research that can improve their production.
Good health is essential for the attainment of good nutrition. Sanitation is also an important aspect. Unfortunately, most people in the world are not able to access hygiene and good health. Inadequate diet causes malnutrition that results to high risks of illnesses that are always prolonged. Frequent acute infections or chronic diseases make it difficult for a person to maintain his or her nutrition status. Economic growth can influence the quantity of nutrition intake. As the economy grows, more people can meet their food needs. When one has more has enough income, he or she can cater for a variety of nutritious diet. The growth of population in most developing countries is also wanting. Population increases to a level that cannot be catered for by the food production of the country. (FoodNavigator-USA.com, 2016)
According to the Journal of the American, people with a better education can choose foods that are rich in nutrients and are willing to spend more on each calorie. Problems associated with nutrition are classified into two. One of the problems is an insufficient intake regarding nutritional needs. The other challenge is enormous or/and unbalanced consumption of particular dietary components and foods. The major nutritional problems in developing countries relate to the first problem, insufficient intake of food regarding nutritional needs. Nutritional education should, therefore, focus on the provision of adequate information and the skills required to procure appropriate diets. The education should also lay emphasis on helping families to improve their food supplies and also make better use of available foods as well as economic resources. (FoodNavigator-USA.com, 2016)
Nutritional, educational programs must encompass various components. One of the components is increasing knowledge and awareness about nutrition to both the public and the policy makers. This component can be enhanced by offering information regarding the link between diet and health. It can also be achieved by showing the relationship between good health and individual productivity. People should be enlightened about the nutritional need of the both the population as a whole and also that of an individual. The importance of eating quality food and enhancing the safety of food should also be emphasized. An education program is expected to give the causes of nutritional disorders and the consequences of the disorders. The policy makers should be enlightened on the need to label food and also come up with legislation that promotes good nutrition. (Scaling Up Nutrition, 2013)
A nutrition education program should develop a desirable food behavior and also good nutritional practices. This aspect can be achieved by offering adequate information about the nutritional value of different foods, various components that constitute a healthy diet and making informed food choices. People should be informed on how to procure food from the available sources. They should also be informed on how to prepare and handle food in a hygienic manner. A nutrition education program should offer information about food storage, food processing and also the preservation of food. There is also need to acknowledge the nutritional needs of each family member in a household. This helps ensures an equitable distribution of food to each member of the family according to his or her nutritional needs.
A nutrition education program should aim at increasing the food supplies of a family and also diversify the supplies. This can be attained by educating people on how to improve their food production, better selection of crops as well as diversification. People should be guided on how food should be stored, preserved properly and also processed in the right manner. Food preparation is important, and people need to know how to conserve nutrients while preparing any food component. They also need to be informed on how to put in place measures to avoid food wastage. Every component has its contribution in enhancing nutritional improvement. The three elements form the basis of nutrition education programs that should be implemented in Africa and other developing countries. The nutrition education is essential for individual development and also at the community level where people should know how nutritional problems affect them.
Ethiopia is a poor African country with a weak infrastructure and health care systems. There exist disparities in most regions in Ethiopia when it comes to access to health care services. Approximately 80 percent of total morbidity in this African country is as a result of communicable and nutritional illnesses that can be prevented. In 2013, National Nutrition Program was formed, whose mandate was to establish strategic objectives and relevant interventions that seek to improve nutrition in the various sectors of the country. The sectors include water, education, health, social affairs and women, agriculture and youth affairs. Ethiopia established Seqota Declaration in 2015, where it committed itself to ending malnutrition by 2030.
It is possible to develop a public procurement policy and enforce it at the local government or at the national level. An acquisition policy can be used in complementing other policies that ensure that food offered by vendors served and consumed observe nutritional value. It can be used and implemented in different settings and venues. For instance, a procurement policy can be implemented by work sites, hospitals, institutionalized populations, day care centers, school systems as well as both state and local governments. It is not practical to apply one procurement policy across all settings. What works in one setting may not favor another. It is of great importance to ascertain whether the particular procurement policy was appropriate for an audience, its acceptability and the impact that it will have on the audience. However, it is possible to apply same nutritional standards, using the same baseline, and then very specific standards for different audiences.
Healthy food procurement policies include processes that are used by public bodies to procure food and further what food they procure and where they procure from. They also dictate how public bodies receive, store, prepare, serve and dispose of food waste. Healthy food procurement policies can influence food manufacturers to reformulate foods and enhance the availability of healthy choices to the general public. They are less costly to implement. They can be very effective in raising awareness in matters concerning healthy foods if they are coupled with education. They, however, require a clear understanding before being implemented.
Food procurement policies should be designed to avail healthy food, make it affordable and appealing. They should equip individuals with the knowledge to make healthy choices. They also need to promote social norms and increase the access to healthy alternatives. Increasing the healthfulness of food options can be attained by targeting many nutrients and setting standards for fat, calories, sugar and trans fat. They also provide a healthful food environment where people are more aware of the existing health options. A procurement policy can make a state or local government play an active role in increasing the demand for healthful foods rather than the usual passive role. In most cases, states and local governments procure food. If they focus on nutritious foods demonstrates the demand for healthy options. They can use such efforts to influence the illiterate.(My.clevelandclinic.org, 2016)
Food procurement policies can be very effective when they are backed up by nutrition education. People need to be advised on how they should procure food, process it, prepare it and eat healthy food that is enough for their needs and also well combined. They also need to have the knowledge about a variety of healthy foods, what are the constituents of a healthy diet, and how they can get a healthy diet using the resources that they have. Traditions and Taboos can significantly affect the health of individuals. These traditions and taboos, coupled with illiteracy can significantly affect the health of persons. An inadequate understanding or insufficient knowledge about the link between the nutrition and health can hinder the intake of nutritious food. These people need to be motivated to adapt better practices that enhance their nutrient uptake and hence their health for a better life.
Nutrition education should be tailored to meet specific objectives. It should be aimed at achieving specific practices related to nutrition. They can also focus on changing people’s behavior or poor habits that lead to poor health. This is achieved by not only by educating people on the importance of establishing desirable food and healthy food practices but also motivating them to change. People are helped by offering them education about nutrition and also instilling confidence in them. They are left to determine what to do to achieve it on their own. Food procurement policies can best work in such an environment. Education lays a foundation where the food procurement policies can work. People already know what is important to them. They will, therefore, be able to follow them since they have a better understanding of what nutrition entails.
A better health can be achieved if people are encouraged and motivated to adopt healthy behaviors. Equipping them with information is not enough, regardless of the quantity and quality of information you offer to them. They will just know how to prepare, store, handle, process and eat healthy food. Having the correct information may not make a significant change. Motivation should be objective and aim at accomplishing should focus specific healthy practices. For instance, do not just encourage them to eat yellow, orange and dark green fruits. An education program should move further to educate people on the importance of doing it. They should be told that such a practice will help them to prevent what diseases. Teach them on how to store maize and tell them which nutrients they will preserve or reduce their loss. The planning and execution of a nutrition education program should focus on instilling certain practices that should be long lasting and should benefit the beneficiaries in the long run.
A nutrition education program should also encourage active participation of the beneficiaries. It should tell whether people are aware of the nutrition problems and whether they are willing to change. There is, therefore, a need to come up with a program that entails the collaboration of professionals from agriculture, health, education and communication. Such a program can also work well if there exists a political good will. It should, therefore, be planned in a manner that it will attract political good will for its effectiveness. Lack of resources can hinder nutrition education. It would be inappropriate to teach people to give their families high-energy foods that they cannot afford. A nutrition education program should be tailored to particular audiences. It should consider the capability of its audience. If possible, it is important to teach people how they can use the available resources to achieve the required results.
Schools offer an essential medium where nutrition education and interventions concerning the children’s health and their nutritional status can be made. The basic aim is assisting the children in obtaining nutrition knowledge and also helping them to develop desirable eating habits as well as food choices. The advantage of equipping children with such knowledge is the fact that they make part of the future generation. They, therefore, will be able to influence their families now and also in the future. They can impart desirable eating habits to their parents and also to their children. There is, therefore, hope for real change in schools. Schools offer an excellent avenue for social communication. Messages that are sent in social centers can bring real change in future if the schools equip children with nutrition education when they are still young.
Available evidence shows that nutrition education can be very effective if the schools provide a supportive environment and also if the nutrition education is linked together with other practical activities relating to food nutrition, (Lytle and Achterberg, 1995). There is a need to develop food procurement policies in schools so as to encourage such behaviors. Also, students should be allowed to participate in food selection, school gardening, food preparation and menu planning so as to offer them an opportunity to acquire first-hand experience on good dietary habits and hygiene. This will impart knowledge and change in children in matters concerning nutrition. The program can also involve parents to enhance its effectiveness. The school programs can be tied to other community activities to increase their impact. Such an initiative will make ensure that the influence goes beyond the children and has an effect on the community.
Good nutrition is an essential aspect of every person. Procurement has not been used effectively in ensuring good food practices, especially in the third world countries. However, it can be very effective if it is used in the right way. For instance, use of food procurement services is an effective way of encouraging nutrition. However, such policies are effective when they are backed up by nutrition education. They will be best implemented in audiences that already have knowledge about their importance. There is, therefore, the need to come up with nutrition education programs that will complement food procurement programs. A nutrition education program should be comprehensive. It should include all the players in nutrition and related fields. It should also receive a political good will.
Procurement and HealthThe term health is a broad term that goes beyond the literal meaning of the absence of diseases or infirmity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a healthy person is one who has a complete state of physical and social being. Health is, therefore, a dynamic condition that results from constant adjustment of the body in response to the changes in the environment. The body also adapts to stresses in life so as to maintain homeostasis, which refers to an inner equilibrium. Health is divided into two aspects, physical and mental health. Physical well-being is a state that can be achieved when a person develops all the components that are related to health in one’s lifestyle. The components of physical well-being include fitness, sexual health, hygiene, bodyweight management, proper nutrition, abstinence from drugs and alcohol abuse and enough sleep.
Mental health does not only refer absence of a mental disorder. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines mental health as a state where individuals can realize their abilities and can cope with any normal stresses in their life, and can work in a productive and fruitful manner. Individuals with mental health can make contributions to their community. One can, therefore, argue that someone may be healthier mentally that another even in a case where both of them do not suffer a mental disorder. Mental health encompasses many components in life such as the ability to achieve joy in life, ability to recover from adversity and the ability to achieve self-actualization. Wellness is a state where an individual can maximize his or her potential. It is, therefore, a life-long process where someone tries to enhance the physical, intellectual, social, spiritual and emotional wee-being.
Health programs require efficient procurement where the use of knowledge and expertise is needed in essential medicines as well as consumables, and also the markets that sell quality products. It requires a careful selection procedure for products and also the development of specifications, precise tender preparation, capacity for testing and an accurate forecasting. It also involves adequate financial resources that should be sustained in the long run. Those parties involved in procurement must be willing and able to establish and support a transparent process. It is even harder to maintain an efficient procurement in the absence of support for public health policies from the national and international. Public health policies that involve issues such as patent protection issues and commodity financing provide support to procurement of health programs. Procurement for health programs in the public sector is, therefore, a complex process that requires coordination of all the parties involved.
Developing countries face significant barriers to the delivery of the much-needed health care. Many of these obstacles are as a result of the unavailability of health care programs or limited access to these services. A recent survey that was conducted in Nepal showed that less than 25 percent of the reproductive health commodities were available out of the 32 reproductive health commodities that had been selected, (Rao and Thapa 2005). Another study that was conducted in Nicaragua indicated only 20 percent of medicines were accessible to clients in the public sector, (PATH 2005). Solutions to this challenge include additional funding for the programs and well as establishing functional procurement procedures. Functional procurement mechanisms are essential to the success of any program.
Many regions in Ethiopia vary concerning climate, terrain, and socio-economic diversity. This has a greater impact on health care and it outcomes. The situation is worse in rural areas. Here, there is no access to any modern health institution. Health systems have not been developed in such regions. It is even worse in rainy seasons when transportation is almost impossible. Approximately 94 percent of the total births in Ethiopia take place at home. Only 6 percent of the births take place in clinics and hospitals. Most of these births that occur at homes are in rural areas. Most mothers who deliver in these regions lack access to roads, let alone any health facility where the women can receive any emergency services. More than 61 percent of such deliveries are done using the help of relatives or other untrained individuals while some happen without any assistance.
Very few women in Ethiopia receive prenatal care. More than72 percent of the women have access to a doctor, a nurse or a midwife. Those women that receive any prenatal care are also disadvantaged. The women either have access to prenatal care to few times of receive it when it’s too late for their pregnancy. This exposes Ethiopian women to the risk of death during their pregnancy or at delivery. One woman out of every 14 Ethiopian women experiences high chances of dying during their pregnancy or at delivery. The risk is even higher in rural areas where most people are poor and uninformed. Children also face a high risk of death during their infancy and also their childhood. One child in every 13 births in Ethiopia dies before attaining the age of one year. Also, one child in every eight children dies before attaining the age of five years.
Early marriages are one of the causes of high maternal and also infant mortality in Ethiopia. People marry as soon as seven years. On average, women in rural areas get married two years earlier than those in urban areas. This increases their susceptibility to HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Over the past decade, there has been a radical campaign to sensitize people about the use of contraceptives. It is however relatively small, with only 15 percent of married women using one of the contraceptive methods. Women in the rural areas rarely use contraceptives. Women in the different regions in Ethiopia have varying fertility levels. Women in towns tend to have fewer children than those in rural areas, about 2.4 children. On the other hand, the women in remote areas tend to have more children, about six children, which surpass the average birth of Ethiopian women that stand at 5.4 percent.
Procurement is a process where an institution or a government obtains services, supplies, and equipment by the laws that apply to a state or an organization, (USG 1996). It is usually a complicated process as it requires the coordination of all the parties involved including MOH agencies, the funding sources, the suppliers as well as manufacturers. Developing countries always face procurement challenges such as overlapping systems, inadequate funding as well as the use of rules and guidelines that are outdated or that are never updated from time to time. Such constraints always delay the procurement process, delay shipments and eventually reduce the access to essential medicines for the citizens. Failure to manage the procurement process consistently disrupts the supply of health commodities. The security of the product can never be strengthened if the effectiveness of the procurement functions is not enhanced.
Procuring pharmaceuticals are different from the procurement of other commodities. They are extremely regulated which increases their susceptibility to corruption. A properly managed procurement process should comply with the policies and regulations that have been set by the government. It should be done in a fair and transparent manner to enhance the efficiency of public funds. The aspect of transparency ensures that all the procuring parties are aware of the set policies. Professionalism improves the individual performance and the overall performance of the system. The competition attracts partners that offer high-quality services. It also promotes a sound business environment that is conducive for companies in a country. It should also enhance service delivery. A well-managed procurement process, therefore, adds value to the programs and promotes accountability.
In Ethiopia, health care is mainly provided by the government. Its health facilities are unevenly distributed among its regions. It is, however, seeking to solve the inequities through a Health Extension Program (HEP) that will improve the health service delivery. This program is designed to enhance the access of basic health services in all its regions, especially those that are located in the rural areas. Lack of proper infrastructure and inadequately trained health workers are some of the challenges that it faces. Most regions do not have health care facilities. The government, therefore, forced to start off by expending the physical health infrastructure and also increasing the number of health workers who will provide these services. Some donors funds the Extension Program (HEP). The donors also assist in the procurement of health care supplies, drugs and also other commodities.
The success of the Extension Program (HEP) is dependent upon several factors. One of the factors is the commitment of the Ethiopian and its donors. Procurement is also an important aspect of the program. Most of the supplies and drugs to be used in the project must undergo procurement process. There is, therefore, the need to enforce rules and regulations concerning procurement. If the procurement process is followed accordingly, it will be transparency and fairness. This will, in turn, ensure that supplies are made available at the right time. It, therefore, increases the accessibility of health care facility. It will also enhance the accountability to the donors, thereby improving confidence in their support, which will encourage them to continue supporting the program. Medical supplies tend to be more sensitive and, therefore, need to be managed properly. This way, procurement will make an impact in the developing of health care sector in the country.(Popkin, Adair and Ng, 2012)
Procurement and the benefits of education and alternative educationMany people view education as an act of just going to school. John Dewey defined education as a social process. According to him, education is not preparation for future but rather a process of living, (John Dewey 1916). It is a process where one invites truth as well as possibilities. One also gets time to discover several aspects of in life. Education is deliberate and hopeful. It is deliberate because we acquire it for our interest. We acquire knowledge to develop our understanding, judgment and enable us to perform various actions. Most people want to educate themselves due to the hope of the outcome. Hope is. Therefore, part of the basis of education, (Mary Warnock 1986) Inviting the truth and possibilities makes one informed, respectful and also wise.
Alternative education is more than a program. It is built on a perspective that one can become educated using different ways, varied educational programs and in varied structures. It is a belief that recognizes that everyone in the world can be educated. It, therefore, offers a variety of options and strategies. Alternative education caters for the needs of those students who do not perform well in the traditional system. They offer different philosophies and methods of teaching. Those children that have fallen off from mainstream education can recover themselves. Also, those students who wish to explore an education system that is less rigid or one that is not structured. There are also those children who require special needs who require a different system from the traditional one. The requirements of gifted students are also catered for alternative education.
Most developing countries are associated with low levels of education. Illiteracy levels in such countries are very high, where many people found in these countries barely know how to read. This is a factor that has promoted the slow economic growth in those states. For a country to report a rapid and continuous growth, at least, more than 40 percent of its citizens should be literate. Sub-Saharan Africa, for example, has high illiteracy levels. Studies have found out that in every four children, only three of the children attend school. Still, all the three children do not a complete education. One of them drops before attaining full primary education. For a country to develop economically, it ought to capitalize on the full benefits of education. The procurement of educational services is an important aspect in realizing the benefits of education and alternative education.
One of the benefits of education is improving the health of individuals. Many people in developing countries have little or no knowledge about the importance of maintaining health. Some people are even unaware of how to maintain personal hygiene. Due to this, many diseases spread out of ignorance. For instance, people suffer from diseases such as cholera and typhoid due to contaminated water. Activities that contaminate water causes such waterborne diseases. Water is contaminated by the same people who suffer from these diseases. Some of them are aware of the repercussions of contaminating water, yet some of them will still drink it. Education can overcome such ignorance. Education helps in creating awareness that will lead to achievement good health.
Proper education increases the number of job opportunities in the market. Better opportunities translate to higher wages. People who earn high wages can live comfortable lives and can offer better education to their children to better their future. Such a trend enhances economic growth and helps a country realize its goals. Very few job opportunities are available for the illiterate. These people are unable to provide good education to their children, and the trend continues to be passed on to the next generation. Education is therefore very important in increasing the number of job opportunities. Better education will discourage bad practices by the government such as corruption. Educated people are made aware of their rights as well as the responsibilities of the government. They are therefore able to demand their rights and vote in better leaders who are accountable for their actions.
In most developing countries, the traditional definition of the quality of education in schools is mainly based on mastery of content. In traditional schooling approaches, the children may spend most of their time in school, but they may not get the value for the precious time spent in school. The reason for this is because children will have foregone opportunities in the community and, in turn, wasted their resources on mastering content. Government agencies and other organizations that are responsible for the provision of education must change this culture. There is a need to procure education that offers more value than the traditional models. It should be aimed at the development of relevant knowledge and skills, and also, equip children with the right attitudes that can help them build their careers and lives. The education offered should be able to meet specific targets.
Significant improvements in the education system have been noted in Ethiopia since it emerged from the civil war 25 years ago. In 1992, only one out of five school-age children were able to go to school. 1999, this had improved by over 60 percent. Currently, it is only one child out of five that is unable to go to school. Most of the regions in Ethiopia have recorded rapid growth in the education sector. It is only two regions that have not realized full benefits of education. The two regions, Afar, and Somali are predominantly pastoral regions. Traditionally, more boys were enrolled in schools as compared to girls. In 1994/95, the number of boys enrolled in schools was twice the number of girls. This has since changed and by 2008/09, the country had almost achieved gender parity.
In Ethiopia, like any other developing country, most of the services are provided by the government. The government of Ethiopia uses all the mechanisms that are available to provide the best quality of services to its citizens. In areas where the private sector has not fully established itself, the government is full involvement in the provision, management and also management of such services. This means that the government has adequately controlled over these services. The government can leave the less sensitive services in the hands of the private sector. However, Ethiopian government still controls certain aspects in such events. Where the private sector is involved, the government is also actively involved. Similarly, the government also includes the private sector in cases where it has full control over the provision of goods and services. It includes the private sector but fully control their activities. (Chilot.me, 2012)

Figure 1: Percentage of children who do not access primary education
(From Poverty to Power, 2010, Para 2)
Figure 1 above illustrates how education in Ethiopia has been improving since 1994. The enrollment in primary school has increased by about 12.5 million from 1994/95 to 2008/09. This progress has been attributed to government’s efforts to develop the public education system through establishing proper procurement procedures and increasing its expenditure in education
The effectiveness of public procurement is an essential part of development. Regardless the extent of participation of the government, or the amount of control it has in the provision of goods and services, the most important aspect is to provide quality services at a minimum cost. Public procurement measures and ensures that public resources are managed in the best way possible. The government of Ethiopia promotes good governance in the public acquisition system. It aims at providing services that are result-oriented, through transparent processes that offer the best value to the citizens of Ethiopia. This is the right way for a developing country to encourage growth and enhance its accountability in the management of public resources.
Public procurement should be established on four important aspects; laws and regulations of procurement, procurement workforce, processes and methods of procurement and a procurement organization structure. The laws and regulations in procurement must be clear, reliable, comprehensive and flexible. The reliability of the rules and regulation is determined by the consistency in their usage. They should cover all the aspects that are involved, and should create room for chance whenever it is needed. The procurement rules and regulations should be formulated under the guidance of fundamental principles that are accepted internationally. Such core principles include transparency, objectivity, accountability, non-discrimination, and fairness. Laws and regulations that are set observing these principles will create an efficient public procurement policy.
A transparent procurement process attracts the number of parties involved in participation that promotes competition. Completion is healthy since it ensures that the best party wins the tender and will provide quality services at an affordable price. Transparency also promotes the spirit of openness and fairness. It, therefore, avoids the possibility of any favoritism and discrimination. One can easily acquire in an environment where the procurement process is transparent. Staffs involved in a procurement process are also made accountable for their decisions and actions. Finally, an effective public procurement policy is a tool that can be used in fighting corruption. Corruption is among the major obstacles to development in most developing countries. A state that minimizes the case of corruption will, therefore, attract development.
In the recent past, the government of Ethiopia has been revising is existing law so that it can respond effectively to the growth in quantity and quality of services that are provided by the government. The Ethiopian procurement policy, therefore, has not been fully established. Each year, the government sets aside a lot of its revenue in the awarding of tenders for the public construction works and also the supply of goods as well as the provision of services. By 2005, the government of Ethiopia did not have any comprehensive procurement law at the national level.
The procurement procedure was regulated by some articles that were contained in the civil code. The Federal government enacted the law in 2005 that provided a comprehensive procedure for any public procurement process. This law also established a federal agency that was mandated to regulate the procurement of any works, goods or services by the various government agencies. The law was made in agreement with the principles of transparency, objectivity, accountability, non-discrimination and fairness. This led to a new era where the law became accepted by most citizens.
Four years later, public procurement law was revised leading to the creation of a new law. The second law was more comprehensive than the first one and contained more precise procedures. It also provided a broad scope, providing regulation concerning public property that was not provided for in the previous proclamation. The executive organ issued a secondary legislation that developed the legal framework, complementing their forms made by the legislative organ. In 201, executive, through the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development gave a Federal Procurement Directive. The Council of Ministers also issued a regulation regarding public procurement. The regional states also do procurement in Ethiopia. They have also started developing regulation for procurement in regions such as Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa.
Establishment of a public procurement law in Ethiopia together with other measures such as the abolition of school fee for primary and secondary schools, school feeding programs, provision of alternative basic education and the supply-side measure has driven change in the education sector. There has been an increment in the number of students enrolled in schools. It is one of the sub-Saharan countries that has abolished school fees and increased the number of students in schools. More to it, the government had deployed more teaching staff that has led to the success of the plan. Most students that are enrolled in schools come from poor backgrounds. The Ethiopian government uses its revenue and donations from other countries to make the program successful.
The progress in education has led to the reduction of poverty among the people of Ethiopia. Food security, health and also nutrition have also improved. The government has is committed to improving food security through its project known as Productive Safety Net Program. Since 2007, the government has offered assistance to over 7 million people. The government is also committed to improving education by increasing its budget. Policies have been developed to improve the access to schools in all the regions in Ethiopia. With proper procurement procedures, the government can achieve success in education.
The government of Ethiopia, however, needs to revise Article 3(2) (b) of the Procurement and Property administration Proclamation No.649/2009. The report states that the Proclamation is not applicable to public bodies in case they enter into contracts with other public bodies in the provision of goods, consultancy, works and other services. The law should subject government bodies to procurement procedures to encourage fairness and non-discrimination. The article could encourage corruption. A good procurement procedure should enhance accountability. There is, therefore, the need to enhance transparency by inviting competition so that the citizens can get value at a minimum cost.
Development of better procure procedures is the way out of poverty for developing countries. Governments, who are the providers of most of the services, should encourage transparency. Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions in the world where corruption is high. For the case of Ethiopia, it has developed proper regulation for procurement and had bore fruits as progress has been noted in most sectors. The only change that should be enforced is the enactment of the clause that excludes government agencies from procurement. With such a change, the government will be able to enhance its services to the people of Ethiopia.
Procurement and the use of technology within healthEvery industry uses technology in today’s world. Technology is also used in our personal lives. Health care technology plays a significant role, and analysis done shows that technology has saved countless lives across the world. Medical technology depends on innovations that play a significant role in sustaining health. The health of patients has been improved by advanced technology in information technology, biotechnology, pharmaceutical industries, manufacture, assembling or production of medical equipment and devices. For instance, through technology and procurement, medical industries now use MRI machines, robotic limbs, and artificial organs, unlike the past where ankle braces and bandages were the only available options. Health care professionals now depend on technology in providing their services to patients; they have significantly improved their practices in surgical procedures, diagnosis, and patients care.
Through the integration of innovations and medicine, the quality of life has been greatly improved. This is because patients take less time in recovery and hence enjoy a healthy life after that. Medical technology has greatly improved monitoring systems, scanning surgery procedures hence greatly improving the provision of health services. However, in developing countries medical technology remains undeveloped which has resulted in low life expectancy. However through a well-functioning procurement system, better services can be accessed by these countries for instance through telehealth. Telehealth is the provision of health-related information and services through telecommunication technologies.
The challenge of health related travels can be avoided by the use of telehealth depending on the health service that should be provided. For example, in electronic services where health care provider must not even be with the patient in the operating room during the surgery process. Instead, the surgeon operates in from any distance and the patient can have the procedure done in a health centre close to their residential place. Electronic devices can significantly reduce the recovery time as they are not very scarring to patients. The use of mobile technologies like Smartphones, tablets and laptops in the medical industries has enabled networking among patients and health providers and linking of the two parties through telecommunication. On the world today, patients hold video conferences with health care providers to avoid the challenges and expenses of travelling to different geographical locations. Physicians can also obtain reliable information about any drug or pharmaceutical product and moreover, link with researchers, health care providers and physicians across the world so as to enhance their services to patients. The patient’s record and history can also be stored and easily retrieved when required, with the use of technology. Patients can also access the medical information they need on the internet or from their doctors with their mobile communication devices. The use digital information like CT scans and X-rays are the innovations of technology which can help in identifying health threats in time. During the selection of new technological products, however, the administration at the medical centres should ensure that the products comply with the HIPAA, so as the confidentiality of patients is achieved and that the equipment also meets the performance standards. (LEE, 1995)
With the changes in the medical and environmental conditions, numerous new diseases have developed across the world, the use of technology is, therefore, necessary in both developed and non-developed countries, to examine and develop antibodies against them. A disease like HIV/AIDS remains a nationwide threat sine the cure for this disease has yet not been developed. Therefore, research and testing new procedures can help in prevention, diagnosis, cure of disease as well as the development of new drugs, antibiotics and other medications that can contribute to reducing or preventing symptoms and even ailments. Developed countries should develop their procurement processes as they can obtain medical equipment that can enable research and procedures that can help provide solutions to life-threatening diseases like Polio, MMR, Malaria and also prevent the spread of these diseases that have claimed countless lives of people, especially in the developing countries.
Despite the demands for implementation of medical technology across the world, Ethiopia still lags behind in health outcomes indicators. The records of Ethiopia compared to Sub-Saharan African indicate that only 6 percent of births are delivered with the help of professional health care professionals, as compared to an average 42 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa. The life expectancy at birth as by 2005 was 43 percent in Ethiopia unlike an average of 47 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa. The male population in Ethiopia a high mortality than the female, compared to Sub-Saharan African. The maternal ratio in 2008 was estimated at 673 deaths in 100,000 live births. Due to lack of modern technology in the medical industries, Ethiopia experiences the impact of communicable disease. For instance, an average of 128 in 100,000 population cases of tuberculosis were recorded in the late 1990s and the cases increased to 356 per 100,000 population in 2004. This value was the highest compared to other developing countries. 29 percent inpatient deaths as a result of malaria were recorded. The use of mosquito nets was very minimal in Ethiopian household, with a well-functioning procurement process the supply of mosquito nets to Ethiopian population can be achieved, through donations and external financial sources. Polio was well controlled in Ethiopia with the implementation of modern technology and procurement process that ensured significant research, development and supply of Polio vaccine to children and boosters at a later age. However, the introduction of poliovirus type 1 from the Somalia (the neighbouring country) compromised the measures that the Ethiopian government had put in place. Four out of eleven regions that border Somalia were infected with Polio outbreak. HIV cases were also reported and with a high prevalence among women compared to men. The cases were also high in urban centres compared to rural areas. This analysis can be attributed to unsafe sex and lack of information on STDs among the Ethiopian population. (Anon, 2016)
To enhance the provision of Health services the Ethiopian government should utilize the primary strategy of procurement, accountability and decentralization of authority to categorize health services to the segment. Ethiopia should ensure good procurement and donation practices, this can be achieved through promoting productive discussions with industries so as to ensure good procurement practices, it should also advocating good procurement and donation practices, the procurements and donations must have tools and guidelines that facilitate the process. The relevant government body should also review and recommend the already established standard equipment specifications regarding different health procedures. It should also develop policies that ensure a well-functioning procurement system through collaboration with the relevant body’s appropriate international medical device standards should also be identified with the right approval systems. Moreover, the medical device regulatory personnel should be trained so as to avoid mistakes that are likely to emerge as a result of unprofessional staff. The team concern with the procurement should ensure the spare parts for these devices are available and that the devices are well maintained so as to minimize errors. (Uniteforsight.org, 2016)
The need for the development of health strategies, policies and plans are crucial for the improvement of health outcome. The health sector can also experience positive impacts with a well-functioning procurement. As elucidated earlier, Procurement process requires a good manufacturer-supplier relationship as it involves the purchase of products and services by the government or parastatal, during the process of implementation of projects, provision of services that are socially important like health care services. The rules that govern the acquisition process and the size procurement market limits are set by Agreement on Government Procurement under the World Trade Organization. However to achieve the benefits of the procurement process in the health sector, the process should be transparent and competitive. Records presented by the World Bank indicate that the health sector is subjected to weak and poor governance that has greatly contributed to poor quality, wastage, stock-outs, and even price inflation. It is, therefore, important to maintain a well-functioning procurement process so as to ensure significant savings through the implementation of better government procurement tools. These will help in the delivery of affordable medicine and hence the establishment of cost-effective and more efficient health care delivery systems that is not prone to corruption practices, fraudulent activities and hence prevent or minimize wastage. The Agreement on Government Procurement sets out the framework for rules that promote trade and competitive trading in areas of public procurement at the international level. The rule however only bound the WTO members. The GPA coverage in the health sector includes the procurement of pharmaceutical products, health services, and medicine. The GPA principles promote competition and transparency and hence can help deliver improved value for money and different governments and their agencies. GPA covers goods that are above a given threshold; the goods also include both pharmaceutical and medicine products (Healthcarebusinesstech.com, 2011)
The concepts of the supply chain are critical to the procurement process. An effective supply chain ensures on-time delivery of procured materials, affordability of goods, the provision of quality products, provide valid warranty, provision services that are transparent and trustworthy and the provision of adequate maintenance. However, most developing countries are faced with many delivery barriers due to corruption, unreliable infrastructure, political instability and lack if trained or skilled technical staff. In some other developing countries, delivery of procured goods is faced with limitations like language constraints, cultural beliefs that prevents effective implementation of some policies; hence, the supply of goods is hindered which leads to wasted consumables and unfulfilled needs. Developing countries, use various supply chain models. The relevant government bodies should review the procurement process. The gap the exists between the current health situation and desired health situation, through the needs assessment the body should make a list of priorities by identifying the most critical specifications and ensuring that they are met first, methods of sourcing funds and budget analysis should be established so as to effect the procurement processes. Selection of purchasing methods is also crucial to avoid wastage of resources. A well-structured procurement system should also ensure that the supply of the procured health products meets the demand, with the consideration of prioritizing the necessary supplies over other equipment; supply of new medical technology products should, in fact, be prioritized. The policies should also be reviewed to ensure appropriate monetary exchange, on successful delivery of workable products professional accountants should complete the transaction process. This will help avoid potential conflicts between the manufacturer and the supplier. Technical and financial methods should also be evaluated. On delivery of products, the relevant officials should confirm the delivered products to ensure that there are no breakages during transport and that the quantity and quality of the products delivered meets the supplier’s specifications. Continued evaluation of the products is necessary to avoid or minimize errors and successful implementation of medical technology.
Procurement and the use of technology within education In various parts of the world, technology has been used to provide the best possible education for learners. Most successful governments utilized skilled labor as their assets, to achieve success in development, and the use of technology to install the skills in a population has become necessary and should be embraced by every nation, especially the developing countries.
Enhancement of technology in the education industry is influenced by the external environment, particularly the government. The school managers and relevant bodies of the government should be able to develop alternatives approaches and modify government policies that govern the procurement process of education activities. This will help in achieving the required visions and school-level values to achieve effective learning, the government should ensure that technology levels in the education sector are improved with a central goal of ensuring the promotion of effective learning and teaching. Enhancing the quality of studies requires strategies that focus on improving on technology. The need to adapt to new technology with will determine the pace at which changes in the education sector will. In the past, there were debatable opinions about the technology in education. Both positive and negative views concerning modernized education were presented. But gradually, educational institutions have embraced modern technology and achieved significant progress regarding the teaching and learning process.
Over time, advanced technology has transformed the education system and hence it is definite that the positives have outnumbered the negatives. However, the implementation of technology in education requires a right vision and reason especially in the procurement of the devices, products or materials that embrace the concepts of advanced technology. Below are the benefits that technology has yielded in the education sector. With technology, the use of the internet and online resources has enabled teachers and learners to collaborate and share ideas despite the geographical location or distance. This aspect has enhanced fast and reliable communication across the world, hence eradicating the shortcoming of the learning process and ensuring that the students receive the best services. Students are also able to develop their research skills at an early age as they can access abundant and quality information that has greatly enhanced the speed of the learning process. Both teachers and students can now utilize modern technology to access a variety of quality information hence ensuring access to opinions from numerous writers, authors or researchers across the world, this has majorly been made possible with the existing devices like smartphones, tablets and laptops and easy access to the internet. E-learning has also been effected by the developments of technology in the education system and hence a credible option to some educations barriers. E-learning utilizes information technology networks to achieve a web-base learning process. Technology has also facilitated the concept of flipped classroom and blended learning, where learners watch lecturer’s videos and in case clarification is needed students and lecturers communicate with the use of emails, Skype or any other social network. Student’s performance has greatly improved with the use of technology as learning tools are integrated thoughtfully
Ethiopia has shown great achievements in the use of science and technology, in the recent past. This use of advanced technology has helped the nation in developing its education system and hence Ethiopia’s progress is evident in the architecture and engineering works. The document that is referred to as “Assessment of the current situation and problems of the S and T in Ethiopia” the details of these documents were presented in the presented in the National and technology policy in Ethiopia. “Amharic” is an Ethiopian script that is an official language of communication in schools, organization, and the government. Regarding the historical perspective of Ethiopia and how the use of computers came to be is attributed t the suppliers of these devices with the use of reviewed procurement policies of Ethiopia. The major suppliers of computers to Ethiopia are NCR, IBM, Burroughs and SERIC Ethiopia. The first supply of IBM numerical accounting machine model 1412/814 to Ethiopia was in the year 1962, the machine was however very slow, and a wiring panel did programming and a professional engineer could only operate it. Later a more advanced electronic device that used auto codes was introduced and was first used in by an institution in Ethiopia that -The Ethiopian Electric Light and Power Authority. A transition to tape-disk system was later introduced which used a monolithic capacity of ranging from 32 to 64 KB and the main software language was Report program generator. The interest for an, even more, advanced technology was created in Ethiopia and more IT devices suppliers focused on the country hence an introduction of entirely magnetic system. SERIC computer suppliers were representative of HP computer suppliers who started to take roots in Ethiopia during the 1980s. Up to date, the use of personal computers (PC) has taken over, and many organizations and individuals now own personal computers that are used the educations sectors and many other organizations. (Archive.unu.edu, 2016)
The government of Ethiopia, as well as key institutions, have played significant roles in the implementation of IT innovation. They have created a conducive environmental condition for the development innovation ideas and procurement of advanced technology devices from the western countries. The relevant bodies identify areas where new technologies can be developed; the body also evaluates and monitors the procured devices. To further facilitate developed of technology in Ethiopia, the National Computer Committee was established by the Central Statistics Authority. Among the roles of the committee was to record the quantity and quality of the imported products, to evaluate projects that are related to technology especially on computers.
The committee also has the responsibility of giving consent to the importation of information and technology products on the basis of the availability of the countries maintenance services, reasonable saving and cost of foreign currency, availability of trained and training personnel, available compatibility and upgradeability. It is also is responsible for preparation of policy drafts on computerization as well as encourage individuals and organizations to embrace the use of advanced technology so as to improve productivity and quality of products. (Archive.unu.edu, 2016)
Ethiopia has also created a cording body for the development of advanced technology in the education sector as well other organization that stand in a position to enhance the countries’ economy. The body is referred to as the National Computer center (NCC) which is under the Ethiopian Science and Technology Commission. The main objectives of the body include providing computer maintenance services and constancy, providing training and computer knowledge in Ethiopia, conducting R and D activities in computers and disseminating results. The body also provides computer training services. The body, therefore, focuses on the following activities that ensure it meets its objective. The major one is to establish long lasting solutions that will help will assist in the utilization of computer technology in education sector, integrating the maintenance services so as to they can cater for the different makes of computers that are procured from different vendors. To support both individuals and government organizations that technology design projects by providing reliable consultation bodies and monitoring the procurement and implementation of projects. The body also focuses on the provision of training courses so as to increase the amount of skilled labor; it also provides consultation services to research activities and information technology development. It also provides an independent maintenance service. The body has made significant progress in computer technology across Ethiopia since the usage of computers in the local language has enabled statistics analysis, word processing, spreadsheet and desktop publishing.Hence, facilitating the use of computers in the Education systems and procurement of computers from vendors across the world since the devices can be customized to fit local use as well as be adequately maintained locally.
The success of supply of procured devices will depend on efficient supply chains, the supply of these products should be flexible, factors like poor infrastructure and poor roads hinder supply and can lead to damage of fragile products, lack of electricity can also inhibit the procurement process of IT devices that rely on electricity. The supply of procured products should also adapt to economic, physical and social constraints that are unique to given community organizations and cultures. Flexibility will also ensure that the demands of different users of the procured products meet the demands of target users. The supply chain should also be sustainable, through the aid of donation organizations or any other financial support organizations. The indicators of sustainability should be advancements in information technology in the education sector and hence improved the performance of students, due to effective teaching and learning the process. Integration of technology as led to sustainability in other aspects of human rights, local governance and female empowerment. Monetary transactions should be transparent and be conducted by professional accountants so as to ensure accountability and reduce wastage hence ensuring sustainability of supply chain.
Supply of the procured products should be decentralized. In Sub- Saharan countries, the population in the remote areas is not equally considered in the delivery of these products, these leaves the local population in extreme poverty, and they therefore lag behind in the learning process. Supply chains should not rely on the presence of big, developed or well-performing institutions so as to deliver the procured products to them, the quality and quantity of products should not diminish as it spreads to local areas either due to inadequate infrastructure or lack of electricity. Instead, the local government should improve on these barriers so as to ensure equal distribution of these IT products. Procurement can also be used to improve on these barriers by giving tenders to potential and competitive parties that c effectively develop the rural areas infrastructure. The use of telecommunication can also help in sharing of information to local areas, the use of Tele-education should eliminate the cultural and language barriers.
Supply from local sources has significant benefits compared to depending on foreign sources. The use of local workers in the production process is cost effective and helps create employment and upkeep of economic development. It also saves on resources and time spent on product delivery, ensures social development, additional of industries and hence increases in the countries manufacturing capacity. It is, therefore, evident that the local government should ensure that the cost of local production is less compared to the cost of importing. Maintenance of IT devices should also be done locally through, a well-functioning procurement system. Supply chains can also be effective if the parties involved are honest and free from corruption. These can be achieved by ensuring the stages of procurement are not many and complex, the parties involved, that is contractors, and subcontractors are few and corruption free, the quantity and quality of the procured products should be well monitored and the need and priority of the products clearly identified. (Gamal Aboelmaged, 2010)
Procurement of new technology products should ensure availability of spare parts and consumables in the local country; this will help prevent wastage of perfectly viable products. The spare parts or consumable should be procured from other existing systems, local manufacturers or another arm of the supply chain; this will ensure long-term sustainability and provision of these device complements. Repairs and maintenance of these products should also be addressed
Implementing the use of advanced technology in the education sector through a well-functioning procurement system, involves different approaches. For instance, the implementation of technology in all levels of education requires a systematic and well function procurement approach. First and foremost, the leadership must show its commitment to this fight. They must have the skills and will to eradicate traditional forms of learning and the knowledge to do away with the factors contributing to it. They should spearhead the fight against structural practices that cut off students with little skills in information technology. Almost all approaches to educational reforms call for the attention of leaders. Their role can create effective and sustainable reforms in the educational sector. The leaders must start by demanding exemplary expectations for students. They must eradicate the ideology of traditional forms of learning especially in schools in the developing countries. Most schools consider the poor performance of students as normal. These are the attitudes that the leaders must fight to eradicate and instead focus on the use of modern technology as well as better procurement systems that can ensure a good performance among students.
Leaders must ensure that the assessment of students regarding the use of technology is effective and fair to all students. The move will create a climate of exemplary performance and achievement for students. The assessment should also be monitored and evaluated so that they are in line with the set goals and that they ensure high performance for all. The leaders should also have a dialogue with the educational providers so as to come up with better and workable solutions that are aimed at implementation of modern technology.
Parents and teachers should also embrace the culture of advanced technology in the education sector. The political leaders must also join in the fight and advocate for these changes in the education system. All these stakeholders in the education sector, especially in the developing countries, must stand for these changes in the education system and ensure genuine reforms that can help promote access to standard education through the application procurement in the process of effecting of these educational reforms. (Wisma and Tomovic, 2010)
State governments should ensure in time funding to suppliers or manufactures of the procured products that are aimed at implementation of technology in the education system. These funds should also be used for the provision of quality education. Every government should show its commitment by allocating such funds in its budget. It should also conduct a follow-up to ensure that these funds are used for the intended purposes. The government should also come up with legislations that support the idea of providing a well-functioning procurement system.
The department of education should also direct more resources to advanced technology in the learning process. The schools that serve students with relatively low financial backgrounds should be given additional resources to ensure that the students receive more funding that can enable them access or purchase devices like smartphones, laptops or tablets that can affect the use of advanced technology in education. . Those students from wealthy backgrounds should be given less funding per student. The rationale behind this thinking is ensuring that allocation of resources is based on the need of students. Every school should undertake an opportunity audit. The exercise is aimed at determining whether the school is offering a fair opportunity for every student to learn. The outcome of this study should determine the education opportunities offered in the schools. It, therefore, means that that school that does not offer equal opportunities to all students should make the necessary changes to their system. They should introduce programs that promote equitable education to all.
Procurement and Safe sexA person with a good reproductive health is one who has a complete state of physical, mental as well as social being in matters pertaining reproductive system. It implies that a person has a satisfying and safe sex life, one can reproduce, and one has the freedom to choose if, when and how often one does so. A person cannot maintain his or her sexual and productive health if one does not have access to relevant and accurate information and also access to safe, affordable and also acceptable method of contraception. Such a person must also be empowered to protect himself against sexually transmitted infections. Women must be informed on how to keep their pregnancy fit, deliver safely and eventually keep the baby healthy. Everyone has a right to his own sexual and reproductive health.
Today, 70 percent of the people who live in developing nations are youths. The current circumstances in which the youths are growing are different from the past. The youth is now able to access formal education. There is also the increased awareness about the internet and computer skills. These youths, who are over one billion, are exposed to different job opportunities. There is more exposure to more ideas through telecommunications, the media, and other avenues. This environment influences the way youths make decisions concerning their sexuality.
Young people in the current times engage in sex when they are still young. The rate of sexual initiation is increasing at an alarming rate. In most developing countries, cases of sexual initiation at a young age are either increasing or remain unchanged. (Batty, 2007)
In many developing countries, most people bear children before marriage. These trends expose the youths to HIV infection. In fact, two-thirds of the youth in Sub-Saharan countries are living with HIV and in most countries, it is a generalized epidemic. Comparing Sub-Saharan Africa to the rest of the world, adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa are more affected by HIV. School-based HIV interventions do not reach out to a good number of youths who do not attend school. The interventions result in mixed reactions. The effectiveness of school-based programs on HIV education depends on the logical choice of the youth. Some of the might decide not to adhere to it. The effectiveness of the programs depends on their funding. Unfortunately, most developing countries lack funds to run the programs The countries opt to fund HIV prevention programs since they cannot afford a comprehensive program.
There are many reasons that are given as to why parents never provide guidance on sex education to their children. First, they were not taught such education in schools or by their parents. Second, they feel discomfort in issues concerning sexual and reproductive health. The reproductive health of women in developing countries is put at risks due to early marriages. Some of them are married to older males who have been sexually active, which can be a cause of HIV in marriage. Cases of premarital sex are very common in such countries. It is important to note that adolescent sexual activity can lead to unintended productive health outcomes that include unintended pregnancy, abortion, unintended childbearing, STIs and HIV. Developing countries also report high cases of sexual violence which can lead to the same reproductive health outcomes.
Married youths in Sub-Saharan Africa are reluctant to use modern contraceptives. Women’s social status is linked with motherhood. For the unmarried youth, the use of contraceptives is also low. For instance, Rwanda reports 3 percent while Burkina Faso reports 56 percent use of contraceptives by unmarried youths. Youths who engage in unprotected sex give various reasons for doing it. Before and after marriage, some youths engage in unprotected sex to demonstrate their fertility. Others do not consider the use of contraceptives due to fear of the possible side effects. Many youths lack accurate information about how pregnancy can occur. Other youths in the Sub-Saharan Africa prefer to suffer the consequences of unprotected sex than risk their concerns about the safety of condoms.(headQuarters, 2016)
In some settings, premarital sex is a taboo. Any sexual activity may, therefore, provoke negative reactions from the teachers. This can affect the achievements of the students and make them drop out of school. Girls mostly may drop out of school due to expulsion or unintended pregnancy. For most countries in developing countries, school policies do not favor pregnant adolescents. Girls are therefore affected adversely by sexual activities, whether they lead to pregnancy or result to birth. Marriages will also affect the education of a girl. The situation is worrying since the majority of boys and girls become sexually active during their adolescence. Recent surveys have showed that women engage in sex as early as 20-24 years. The median is even low in some countries. For instance, the average median in the Sub-Saharan Africa is 18.5 year with Chad reporting a median of 16 years.
Education is an important aspect in informing the youths about sexual and reproductive health. School-based programs are effective in imparting knowledge and changing the attitudes and intentions of the youths. The programs should be funded by the government agencies to increase their effectiveness. There is a need to develop comprehensive programs that cover all the aspects of sexual and reproductive health rather than prevention of HIV. This will give students a detailed knowledge that will influence their behaviors. According to research was done in the Dominican Republic, youths who are taught sex education are more likely to use contraceptives and have more information about HIV than those that do not have it. Sex education, therefore, imparts positive norms that enhance HIV-preventive behaviors. Community-based interventions should also be encouraged. Parents should also guide their children on sexual and reproductive health.
Increase in HIV prevalence, sexual debut together with multiple partnerships calls for the need to educate the youth about sexual and reproductive health. Abstinence should be highly encouraged through development of appropriate programs. It is also important to design mechanisms of reaching those youths that are not in schools. The programs should be broadened to cover a wider scope. The programs should empower both genders and help them in negotiating matters that affect their reproductive health. Women should be taught on how to negotiate sexual behaviors by considering accurate information and the expected health outcomes. The school-based programs should be evaluated from time to time to determine their impact, and they should also be revised to fit different environments. They should also be personalized to meet the needs of specific audiences.
Ethiopia is among the largest countries in the Sub-Saharan Africa with 92 million inhabitants. Researchers estimate that approximately 1.3 million people are living with HIV. Men are more informed about HIV than women. This has led to the establishment of Public Health Programs that target women. The programs focus mainly on premarital relationships. The ministry of education has enhanced sex education by providing school health education in schools at all levels. Youths that are not married remain to be the most vulnerable group to HIV prevalence. The current, past programs ignore the fact that HIV prevalence in marital relationships also plays a significant role. Research has shown that married in some developing countries are unable to negotiate sex and the use of contraceptives. Women who get married to older partners tend to have high chances of contracting HIV.

Figure 2: How demand has been met by modern contraceptive methods, (Fabic et.al, 2015).
Figure 2 above shows Developing countries have not been able to meet the demand for modern contraceptives. However, there has been an improvement in the procurement of modern contraceptives. Countries in the developing world such as Ethiopia should develop better procurement procedures to ensure a steady and reliable supply of reproductive health commodities.
Access to reproductive health, which includes family planning, is considered to be a human right. The supply of contraceptives needs to be steady and reliable. However, most governments in the developing countries commonly overlook the importance of access to reproductive health. The countries do not prioritize in their development agenda. Reproductive health commodities are essential in ensuring that people live a healthy life. There is, therefore, need to the improve security of these commodities. However, most developing countries depend on aids from donors to support such programs. Due to overreliance on donors, the security of these goods is not guaranteed. With the need to achieve universal sexual and reproductive health, the government needs to devise new ways of procuring these products. For instance, the unmet goal of family planning should be enhanced by ensuring a steady supply of reproductive health commodities.
Family planning should be safe and voluntary. It should as well be readily available to all people. Family planning greatly contributes to gender equality and also ensures women’s empowerment. It is also central to the reduction of poverty. Today, large numbers of women do not use safe and effective methods of family planning. Most of the women lack access to family planning services. Others do not have access to accurate information about safe and effective family planning methods. Some women also lack support from their communities or their partners. Most women who lack the access to information and services of family planning methods are found in developing countries. UNFPA seeks to ensure that reliable and quality contraceptives are supplied to meet the needs of people. It offers global leadership by convening partners to put in place better family planning programs.
Contraceptives ensure a healthy sexual and reproductive health by preventing unintended pregnancies, reducing incidences of abortion and lowering the number of death cases and disability that are to complications of pregnancies and also during birth. If today there were enough access to contraceptives to all women in the world, so many lives could be saved, for instance, 6 million miscarriages, 500,000 infant deaths, and 70,000 maternal deaths would not happen. Furthermore, both male and female condoms provide protection to both men and women in preventing unintended pregnancies and STIs that include HIV. Modern contraception should be given to adolescent girls so as to improve their long-term health. A significant number of girls experience complications during pregnancy and childbirth. Their babies die more than those of older women. Most adolescents in developing countries are unable to access information and services on contraceptives.
Family planning is the way forward to achieving gender equality. It empowers couples to determine whether to have children and to plan for them in case they need them. This sets women free to compete with men in life. They can complete their studies and improve their earning power. Such women will strengthen their economic security and will improve the standard of their families. Adolescent pregnancy disrupts the life of a woman and denies her the opportunity to explore her full potential. It also increases the number of dependants. Economic productivity can, therefore, be improved by enhancing access to information and family planning methods. Also, these cumulative benefits will lead to poverty reduction. When both partners are educated, they will be able to guide their children on matters of sexual and reproductive health. A family that is informed the future will, therefore, provide a better future for their children.
UNFPA is determined to improve family planning access to communities across the world. It also seeks to empower people. Through its partnership with governments, NGOs, faith-based organizations, youth groups, the private sector and community-based organizations, it strengthens reproductive health services. It also provides reproductive health services in case of humanitarian crises. Through UNFPA program, it ensures the access to reliable contraceptives, medicines, condoms, STI prevention, maternal health services and family planning equipment. It also advocates for the integration of family planning services into the primary health care to enable women to have access to information about sexual and reproductive health.
Common reasons most women are unable to unable to use contraceptives can be categorized into two. Social barriers include opposition from partners, communities and also their families. Lack of knowledge is another also another factor. Provision of education can overcome these obstacles. School-based programs will help the adolescents to access information about sexual and reproductive health. There should also be other programs that target those adolescent that are not in schools. The other category includes logistical problems. Some women face difficulties in accessing health facilities due to their unavailability. Others do not access the services due to lack of supplies in the health facilities. This challenge can be solved by enhancing better procurement procedures that will ensure a steady and reliable supply of supplies. Better procurement ensures that reproductive health commodities are available to all health centers.

ConclusionProcurement process requires a good manufacturer-supplier relationship it involves the purchase of products and services by the government of parastatal during the process of implementation of projects r provision of services such as health, education services, infrastructure, technology and other social aspects. Developing countries have a need for well-functioning procurement systems since procurements account for a high total expenditure. The success of supply of procured devices in developing countries will depend on effective supply chains. The supply of these products should be flexible, factors like poor infrastructure hinder supply that can lead to damage of fragile products, lack of electricity can also inhibit the procurement process of IT devices that rely on electricity. The supply of procured products should also adapt to economic, physical and social constraints that are unique to given community organizations and cultures. Flexibility will also ensure that the demands of different users of the procured products meet the demands of target users. The supply chain should also be sustainable, through the aid of donation organizations or any other financial support organizations. The indicators of sustainability should be advancements in information technology in the education sector and hence improved the performance of students, due to effective teaching and learning the process. In developing some countries, integration of technology as led to sustainability in other aspects of human rights, local governance, and female empowerment.
Developing a procurement policy is a viable, doable and feasible strategy that can be used by both state and local governments. An acquisition policy can be used in complementing other policies that ensure that food offered by vendors served and consumed observe nutritional value. It can be used and implemented in different settings and venues. For instance, a procurement policy can be implemented by work sites, hospitals, institutionalized populations, day care centers, school systems as well as both state and local governments. It is not practical to apply one procurement policy across all settings. What works in one setting may not favor another. It is of great importance to ascertain whether the particular procurement policy was appropriate for an audience, its acceptability and the impact that it will have on the audience. However, it is possible to apply same nutritional standards, using the same baseline, and then very specific standards for different audiences.
The concepts of the supply chain are crucial to the procurement process, supply chain ensures, on-time delivery of goods and services, affordability of goods, the supply of quality products, delivery of the expected quantity, provide effective warranty, provision services that are transparent and trustworthy as well as the provision of satisfactory maintenance. However, most developing countries are faced with many delivery barriers due to corruption, unreliable infrastructure, political instability and lack if trained or skilled technical staff. In some other developing countries, delivery of procured goods is faced with limitations like language constraints, cultural beliefs that prevent effective implementation of some policies. Hence, the supply of goods is hindered which leads to wasted consumables and unfulfilled needs. Developing countries use various supply chain models. The relevant government bodies should review the procurement process. The gap between the current health situation and desired health situation, through the needs assessment the body should make a list of priorities by identifying the most critical specifications and ensuring that they are met first, methods of sourcing funds and budget analysis should be established so as to effect the procurement processes. Selection of purchasing methods is also crucial to avoid wastage of resources.
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