How does retirement and work in old age differs between men and women?
How Does Retirement And Work In Old Age Differ Between Men And Women?
What is the author saying? What are the main points?
Pisarev A. states that research has proven that the problem of the most human capital of older people is due to the current conditions that have taken advantage of the available educational and professional potential. The age and sex structures in employment have matched on with the population portions. The majority of retired people who are still in their current jobs are those whose pensions seem not contracted for longer periods. As for other individuals the continuation of employment among the elderly is due to their previous types of jobs and education levels although the two factors are not easily relatable. Gender wise women are lowly populated in the employment industry because their distribution in the physically inclined labor is lower than mentally inclined labor occupations that require medium levels of qualifications. Further on, women are identified with larger proportions in unqualified labor occupations.
Moreover, workers who formerly worked in state enterprises in higher levels of occupations were more likely to quit once they reached their retirement ages. Their continuation of work means that they are working in state enterprises after their pensions. In dynamics of the type of employment, a considerable portion of workers with higher qualifications and going on pension, do not bring any change when it comes to spheres of activities in work. As for the workers with lower qualifications continuation to work after retirement entails an expansion in the fields of work. This act is typical although credited as unqualified labor (Pisarev, 2006).
Jacob, Hershey and Neukam claim that the majority of retirement programs that are available commercially take a universal approach towards interventions that fail to consider how different portions of the population perceive the planning process. These programs would prove more beneficial if they found women’s ages and income levels since both are researched to have a significant influence on the time spent during the retirement program planning. Although the age and revenue levels are known to be hardly unchangeable, these factors are important in the development of any intervention program (Jacobs-Lawson, Hershey, Neukam, 2004).
The main points in this entire research include a complete analysis of the factors that have affected retirement rates in relation to age and gender. These factors include the following. Levels of education prior to the retirement process have a major effect on portions of the retired and working for the population. Age plays a role in the analysis of gender distribution among the employed elderly. Researchers have determined that majority of employed women are lowly qualified and mostly opt for jobs that are more mental inclined than physical. Another factor to consider is the levels of employment that an individual was in before retirement. This factor affects the rate of retirement since prominent employees are less likely to consider complete retirement.
The gender difference in work and retirement among the elderly.
Kevin E.Cahill, Michael D.GIandrea, and Joseph F. Quinn begin their research article on the gender differences emerging in the retirement packages explaining that there seems to be a gender difference in the retirement trends in all areas of employment.
What questions, issues, or previous research prompted the present study?
Previous researchers have found that economic changes have impacted retirement packages as well as work-related strategies as for the elderly. The retirement packages that include job transitions and reentry have influenced the rise in gender differences after nearly two decades of similarities.
Critical analysis of the article.
What evidence does the author use (scientific or non-scientific)?
Scientific cohort studies show that a health and retirement study claimed results that there existed factors that identified as potential drivers of gender differences. These factors include; dependency rates, status on the career job and a self-employment status. The older employees were responding to work still even in later periods of their lives due to their current economic environments. (Giandrea, Cahill, & Quinn, 2009). Older women experience an early break from employment while as for men the labor force participation rates declined steadily. However, a more recent study explains that the retirement patterns of early boomers in the employment industry, impacted by the economy, finds that the retirement patterns of the first boomers are showing a diverse change from the previous cohort studies. The early boomers are more likely to leave their jobs earlier due to the involuntary layoffs that were not the case.
Today the amount of both men and women working later in their lives is higher while the determinants of the retirement decisions lay solely among factors such as health, pensions, age and health insurance services offered.
What is the author’s point of view, theoretical perspective, or bias?
Throughout the article, the authors have remained highly objective to the purpose of the research. However, the article has not reflected upon a particular form of theoretical perspective. The authors all agree that focuses on occupational differences due to gender also lead to the different retirement patterns between men and women.
What are the strengths and limitations of this article?
The strengths and weaknesses of the material lay in the fact that the findings rely solely on earlier recorded data that proves accuracy. In addition to that, the article has focused on the main factors that affect retirement factors in the employment world. However, the data collected and used in the article, although widely practical, seems to have been uprooted from a single situation area which is America.
Do you agree with the author’s conclusions? Why or why not?
I concur with the authors of the article only because the findings have undergone sufficient research studies that prove a palpable conclusion to the matter. The results, as well as analysis of the gender differences during and prior to retirement, are also common in today’s daily spectacle of life.
How does your research question and article relate to relevant sociological concepts and theories?
The article recognizes some sociological theories and concepts that deal with gender and retirement patterns of individuals in a social community. An example of this concepts is the gender theory in social gerontology that shows how women become more invisible through the lack of problematization of age. Based on the approach of age, the concept argues for a more sophisticated understanding about intertwinement between age and gender (Krekula, 2014).
How do your research question and article relate to relevant and current social trends and issues in the greater local, national, or international community as found in an accessible media source?
Gender differences in work and retirement have been emerging in the past couple of years. This issue has formed a characteristic in the current economic statuses due to its effect on the labor force that drives the economy. The macroeconomic forces profoundly affected by work have become subjects to the gender differences that consume economic evolution.
Jacobs-Lawson, J., Hershey, D., & Neukam, K. (2004). Gender Differences in Factors that Influence Time Spent Planning for Retirement. Journal of Women & Aging, 55-69.
Krekula, C. (2014, August 1). Urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-24561 : The intersection of age and gender : Reworking gender theory and social gerontology. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:598330
Cahill, K. (2013, September 24). Are gender differences emerging in the retirement world. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from www.bls.gov/OSMR
Giandrea, M., Cahill, K., & Quinn, J. (2009). Bridge Jobs: A Comparison across Cohorts. Research on Aging, 549-576.
Pisarev, A. (2006). Factors of Employment in Retirement Age. Sociological Research, 59-77.