Hieronymus Bosch: Garden of Earthly Delights
History Of Western Art: Analytical VS Synthetic Cubism
Cubism is a visual arts style invented and popularized in the 20th century. Its creation has been credited to two artists, Pablo Picasso, and Georges Braque. Pablo was of Spanish descent while Braque was of French descent. The created the visual art style of cubism between 1907 and 1914 in Paris, France. When the art style was created, it did not immediately get the label for which it is popularly known today. The cubism was a term that was coined by a French art critic known as Louis Vauxcelles. Louis noticed that the works of art by Braque and Pablowere highly abstracted and had distinct features from the traditional art styles. The art works had geometrical shapes, and Louis concluded that cubes were the predominant shape in the art style (Barr 1).
Up until the point of cubism creation, European painters had inherited a concept in which they believed that art should copy nature. Cubism introduced a new art concept. The previous form of art was one-dimensional while the abstract nature of Cubism was achieved through two-dimensional art.Fractured objects in an art piece were reduced into different geometrical forms and these forms were subsequently realigned within shallow spaces.Multiple and contrasting vantage points were also used by the early cubic painters as they sought to diversify the art style. In the early cubist painting, between the period of 1907- 1910, the picture’s subject was discernible. However, figures and objects were analyzed and dissected to form a multitude of small facets. These facets could later be reassembled to form the original figures and objects. Picasso and Braque’s style of art had a high degree of abstractness and was often reduced to overlapping planes. The facets were developed in monochromatic brown, black and gray (Rewald 1).
However, early Cubism was largely analytic cubism, which led to the term. Later Cubism advanced to form the Synthetic Cubism, created in the periods between 1920 to the 1920s. The cubist palette,which was largely limited in the analytic phase and included shades of brown, gray and black. Forms and geometric shapes in this period were largely rigid and their compositions were intricate and subtle. The early period of Cubism is largely credited to three artists, Georges Braque, Pablo Picasso and Juan Gris. This form of art was intended to appeal to the intellect in the community. As opposed to the traditional forms of art, cubismwas intended to show the everyday objects as the mind perceives them as opposed to how the eye views them. The cubism art style, though started in painting, it quickly revolutionized the sculpture world and architecture. Due to this effect, Cubism has been considered the most influential art style of the 20th century (Rewald 1).
Salvador Dali and Hieronymus Bosch
Salvador Dali, a painter of Spanish descent, was born in 1904 in Catalonia Spain. He is one of the most recognized artists and contributors of Surrealism and abstract painting. He studied art both in Madrid and in Barcelona. In the process, he acquired different styles as a young artist. However, he joined the Paris Surrealist movement and developed his style in that direction. His art style is as flamboyant and as a shocking as the choice of grooming, he chose for himself in the form of an elaborate moustache. His art matured rapidly in the 1930s, and he produced his painting during his time. His abstract images were images from the subconscious mind brought out in reality(Peyre, 1948).
Dali’s Work was influenced by Pablo Picasso after he met him in 1926 after an introduction. Dali greatly revered Pablo Picasso, and his work was influenced by Pablo’s works. During his lifetime, Dali maintained a neutral political stand. Because of this stand, he was heavily criticized by his peers who supported leftist politics.
Bosch was a Dutch painter who made his name in the 15th century. He is known for his fantastic imagery, his illustrations that bore of religious concepts, as well as landscapes. His greatest works include the triptych famously known as Garden of Earthly Delights. The painting bears a Christian concept and depicts the biblical Garden of Eden. His paintings were different from paintings of painters of his time as his works had signature rough surfaces. His paintings are surreal in nature and have fascinated people for centuries after his works though his works continue to gain less popularity as critics continue to argue that there was nothing extraordinary about his paintings.The religious concepts brought out in his paintings are consistent with the concepts in the literature from writers from that period as well (Peyre, 1948).
Cubism has been split into two forms, analytic and synthetic cubism. The analytic form of cubism was the earlier version of cubism. It is characterized by a limited palette of brown, black and gray. Analytic Cubism was created between 1907 to 1912.Two artists, Braque Georges, a French artist, and Pablo Picasso of Spanish descent, were responsible for the creation of this art form in Paris, France. Braque and Picasso invented several specific shapes that they used to represent and characterize the whole object of a person.
With analytic cubism, the emphasis was on the image. The limitedrange of colors was used to ensure that the subject remained the central theme of the painting.The analytical cubism paintings are characterized by; planes and lines that are continually interweaving. Tonal differentiation is used to a limited extent as a similar color shading is used throughout the image.The images appear as overlapping geometrical shapes and lines (Gall 4).
Synthetic cubism, on the other hand,developed later, after analytic cubism had been created by Picasso and Braque.Synthetic cubism was built on the principles of analytic cubism, but was developed to address some of the issues that painters had with the use of analytic cubism. Synthetic cubism had properties that were unique to analytic cubism as well as properties that were present in the traditional art styles. In analytical cubism, the concept of art copying nature had been dropped. Synthetic cubism brings some of these features back. For example, some of the natural features incorporated in previous art styles were integrated with the new concepts. The style took both the commercial approach as well as integration with art for artists (Gall 4).
Synthetic cubism was different from the analytical cubism on several aspects.These include, but are not limited to the color range, the motivation behind the images, the audience as well as the perspectives.With synthetic cubism, the color range was not limited to the shades of gray, black and brown in the analytical cubism style. Other colors were used and the artists could use both bright and dark colors within the same painting to emphasize various aspects and features of their paintings.The analytics cubist images were meant for a smaller audience of intellects. The images were also created with a commercial sense motivating the art. The synthetic art style had a wider audience and could appeal to the wider public. Synthetic cubism cannot be limited to the few years in which the analytical style is attributed to, it continued to grow throughout Europe and eventually across the globe.
Analytic cubism was created with the idea of breaking down the objects into fragments and then reassembling the fragments to create the image.Synthetic cubism is different in this aspect.With synthetic cubism, the images were built up (synthesized) from new shapes and elements.Physical elements were introduced into the synthetic cubism. Dustand materials from everyday objects such as sand and newspaper cuttings wereused in an effort to present the new art style as ‘real’. The synthetic cubism was less abstract. Art critics have since criticized the new style asa deliberate attack on fine art (Rewald 1).
Picasso, for example, he used collage to create various forms of art. He used to amuse spectators of his art with the various transformations of everyday objects into art objects.Critics have argued that, even tough Pablo Picasso co-invented the analytical cubism and to a large extent he whole concept of cubism, he failed to see the impact his inventions and did little to help establish the art in practice.It seems as if Picasso had just embraced the changing at that time. He failed to recognize that when they co-invented the analytical cubism concept, they had attacked traditional forms of art for the same reasons. They had accused traditional fine art as using the everyday material to create an illusion of reality. Picasso was now engaging in the same habits that he had fought against when they established analytical cubism (Bohn 53).
Cubism art style has established itself as the most influential art style of the 20th century.Established in Paris by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, the art style was created to appeal to a smaller audience, the intellect. It was until 1911 that the art style received its publicity and introduced to the general public. Since then, the art has developed and evolved. Initially, the analytical cubism was pure and had a limited range of colors, black, gray and brown. The same color range was used in a painting. When the art style was introduced to the public, other artists took up the new art style and developed it (Baumgartner 375). Synthetic cubism was born at that time and continued to take the European and global context by storm. The cubism art style was taken up by Europeans and its concepts were integrated into theirpaintings. The Cubism concept is unique as it introduced a new way of painting that was not there previously. Its impact is far and wide and the concept was taken up by sculptors and architects.
Cubism introduced a modern concept of art. Two-dimensional form of art as opposed to the traditional fine art one-dimensional approach.The new approach was intriguing because it introduced paintings the way the mind perceives images. The traditional style of art, not only copied nature and allits aspects, but it presented the art pieces in the way the eye viewed the objects.The cubism concept has since been used for modern forms of art and continues to influence modern art. The analytical cubism style is, however, distinct from the modern form of cubism. The salon cubists that emerged after the first world warare responsible for most of the concepts that developed after the first world war (Benvenuto 390). They are also known to have influenced synthetic cubism the most.
Personally, I think that Cubism has formed an important part of that evolution. Cubism, especially synthetic cubism continues to influence modern art. Cubism introduced new concepts to art and serves as proof that artists can experiment with new artistic methods successfully as art is not defined within certain bounds.Cubism also influenced technology and may have laid the emphasis on the current efforts to introduce perspectives to various forms of art. The two-dimensional view has since paved way for three-dimensional views.It is reasonable to think that cubism had a large impact on the developments unfolding in the modern world.
Barr, Alfred Hamilton. Cubism and abstract art: painting, sculpture, constructions, photography, architecture, industrial art, theatre, films, posters, typography. Belknap Pr, 1936.Web
Baumgartner, Michael. “Paul Klee. From Structural Analysis and Morphogenesis to Art.” Research in Phenomenology 43.3 (2013): 374-393. Web
Benvenuto, Sergio. “The Gaze of the Blind: Notes on Cézanne and Cubism.”American Imago 70.3 (2013): 385-406. Web
Bohn, Willard. The rise of surrealism: cubism, dada, and the pursuit of the marvelous. SUNY Press, 2012. Print
Gall, David A. “Fragments of what? Postmodernism, Hybridity and Collage.”Journal of Art for Life 5.1 (2014): 4. Web
Peyre, H. (1948). The significance of Surrealism. Yale French Studies, (2), 34-49.
Rewald, Sabine. “Cubism”. In Heilbruin Timeline Of Art History. NewYork. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. Web. 3 April 2015. Web
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