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Endosymbiotic Theory

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Endosymbiotic Theory

Category: Research Paper

Subcategory: Biochemistry

Level: Academic

Pages: 1

Words: 275

Era, relationship, and the condition on earth
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Era, relationship, and the condition on earth
Endosymbiosis theory explains the double membrane fusion with double membrane and of the chloroplasts and the mitochondria. Endocytosis over the years is postulated to have resulted in this fusion between the blue-green algae and the bacteria over time. The process involves gaining entry into a cell without piercing the cell membrane. The plasma of the cell membrane engulfs the foreign material locking it inside and as a result, an intercellular vesicle form. The chloroplasts and the mitochondria resemble those of the prokaryotic ribosomes. The existence of the amoeba and other eukaryotic organisms that lack mitochondria are evidence for the necessity of the symbiotic relationship with the aerobic bacterium.
Single celled organisms are among the eldest organisms on earth. From fossil records, bacteria once covered the land we live on today. As a way of feeding, the bacteria started making their food from suns’ energy and carbon dioxide. The process had oxygen as a by-product that changed the earth’s atmosphere making the existence of other living organisms possible. According to Ku et,.al (2015), the endosymbiotic relationship started millions of years ago with the mitochondria and the chloroplasts depending on other large cells for survival. Following many years of evolution and the dependence on other cells, these tiny cells can never exist individually without the host. The Russian scientist Konstantin first articulated the theory in 1910.
About four billion years ago is the estimated time when the earth had no single oxygen molecule according to the Utah Department of Health Sciences. At this era was the origin of the bacteria that resulted and survived the extreme conditions prone to storms and volcanic eruptions. Archaea are the example of these bacteria thriving in extreme conditions today.
Ku, C., Nelson-Sathi, S., Roettger, M., Garg, S., Hazkani-Covo, E., & Martin, W. F. (2015). Endosymbiotic gene transfer from prokaryotic pangenomes: Inherited chimerism in eukaryotes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201421385.
Department of Health Sciences (2015). The Evolution of the Cell. Genetic Science Learning Center. University of Utah. http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cells/organelles/. Retrieved 6/8/2015; 3:30 PM.

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