Early Civilizations Matrix Chart
Early Civilizations Matrix
Early Civilizations Matrix
CivilizationPoliticsSociety and EconomicsTechnologyArtMusicArchitecturePhilosophyLiteratureBuddhismPolitics was influenced by Hellenism.
The trade also depended on the Hellenistic city that served as an economic center for grain produce.
International trade also existed as they traded as far as sub-Saharan Africa and Arabia.
Used caravan trade to transport essential commodities (Leidy, 2008).Influenced writing and printing technology in the 13th Century BC.
They helped in the spreading and usage of the technology that increased literacy and economic developments (Sraman, 2014).Reflects that critical aspects of Buddhism.
Also, has different representations of religious sculptures, images and symbols among othersTheir music had a close association with earthly desiresDeveloped in the Indian region in the 3rd Century BCE.
Corresponds to religious monumentsInvolves explanation of delivered teachings.
Explicates dharmas reality as well as describing the reification of conceptsInfluenced by vernaculars.
The literary texts were written in Sanskrit, and they had their teachersEarly Middle AgesInvolved feudalism where political power was exercised by the locals rather than the centralized states.The economy was centered around agriculture based on feudalismCreated the Stationary harbor cranes. Had the first excavation of tidal mill from the 787 AD, Invented the heavy plough used in agriculture.Restricted to pietistic paintings such as religious art. No portrait paintings and has illuminated manuscripts.Sacred music was prevalent. Polyphonic music and secular music also developed.Involved different styles such as Romanesque, Gothic architecture and French-styleProvided the idea the middle age was established in the fifteenth centuryIncluded classical Sanskrit with no particular date.High Middle AgesMilitary states, as well as feudal political system.Had advanced agricultural based economy. There was social stratification that characterized the economy (Zalewski, 2012).Technical drawings. Establishment of the printing press and the mechanical clock in the 13th century.Involved gothic style that had Islamic arch to support the walls and ceilings.Included polyphonic genres that were religious in nature.Developed airy structures aimed at increasing space and air in the buildings.Had origins on the Greek philosophy. Respected the foundation for theological positionsIncluded written works based on religious issues throughout the middle ages.Late Middle AgesPolitical upheavals challenging the hierarchies of powerEconomic growth and prosperity. However, there was the crisis that evolved from a series of events (Davies & Fouracre, 2002).Inventions in print technology and the increase of ideasUse of Latin texts as well as Greek texts. The art was inspired by their religious beliefs.Traditional music existed. Liturgical charts were also used.Inspired by the Greek plans in their buildings such as equal length, mosaic technique and dome shaped (Davies & Fouracre, 2002).Theological philosophy study was the primary focus.Involved religious issues influenced by the Greek and roman texts.Ancient GreeceThe minority controlled the government. Democracy existed (Rotella, Gold, Andriani, Scharf & Chenoweth , 2003)Engaged in sports based on education and birthDeveloped the human anatomy, deductive geometry and solar eclipse theoryInvolved theatre performances of drama, comedy and tragedyUsed stringed instruments and was applied in different ceremonies.Used materials such as limestone, bronze. Developed religious buildings and civics among others (Curta, 2011).Established the water theory in 547 BCE. Sophistry by SocratesInvolved Hieroglyphic scriptsAncient RomanThe military had the dominant power while the Senate controlled the military (Trigger, 2003).Barter trade existedDeveloped water powered mills in 101BCE. Created a calendar in 46BCEArt described the military achievement of the Roman empire. Roman art was also influenced by the Greek art (Trigger, 2003).Inspired by the Greek hence lacking originalityImplemented Arch in the construction of Circus and Colliseum.No original philosophyDevelopment in writing as first biographies, speeches and essays were established.ChinaAristocracy existed where the king or emperor ruledThere were class divisions. The economy was also based on the trade of agricultural productsCreated Calligraphy and Pictographs form of writing.The writing was considered critical, and Calligraphy helped in producing the Chinese characters.Traditional music. Used bone flute while people clapped their hands.Distinct features such as complex building, single building and architectural art. Involved timber structures technique that later advanced to bricks and tiles.Established Confucianism or the philosophy of Taoism.Began in 1500BC and included classical arts such as Daoism and Confucianism among others.IndiaPolitically stable with a united Government (Eisenstaedt, 2002).Depended on farming. Agriculture was predominant among the population. Had a flourishing economic system.Created weapons and tools from copper. Established industries such as textile and food processingInvolved various forms such as pottery and plastic arts with a unique culture.Well developed. Used instruments such as drums and stringed instrumentsStarted in Northern India in 2500 BC. Involved big houses by solid stones. Build mosques with stones making them fancier and strong.Tends to be materialistic and assumes religious indifferences.Used Sanskrit literature. However, the earliest works were orally transmitted.JudaismRuled by clans
The kingdom was later developed under Saul (Neusner, 2006).Monotheistic Individual existed in the 63 BCEAdvanced glassmaking technology. Better buildings and infrastructure.Copied religious ideologiesUsed the musical approach in religious ceremonies to read Torah to enhance understanding (Neusner, 2006)Highly influenced by Greeks and Romans. Mosaic designs of the buildingsJews divinity as well as Judaism that helped in establishing reality of their religionPrinted the Hebrew Bible and Torah in 400 BCSEarly ChristianLed by Jewish and Roman religious leadersHad beliefs that allowed them to accept suffering such as slaveryThey were influenced by the Roman and Jewish religious leaders. However, religious principles discouraged developmentHad paintings and exhibition of the biblical people.They used hymns and had no personal appearance from liturgical musicCopied the Roman designs, the entrance and the mosaics among othersCreated disputes on religious faithsThe Bible as well as the Ten CommandmentsIslamTheocratic form of politics rule, The Quran inspired unity and politicsDominated the international trade and had a culture based on their religion in the 14th centuryEstablished the science library in Cairo, Canon of medicine.
Developed elliptical and astronomers technology to study the planets.Created 3D sculptures. Had abstract shapes with bold colors.Stringed musical instruments called Ud The walls of the mosques had polychromatic colors from mosaics, and the pillars were bold.Created the system for supporting theories as well as developing the scientific methodThe Quran is common to all Muslims and can be levelled to the Christians Bible
Curta, F. (2011). The Edinburgh history of the Greeks, c. 500 to 1050: The early middle Ages. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Davies, W., & Fouracre, P. (2002). Property and power in the early middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Eisenstadt, S. N. (2002). Comparative civilizations and multiple modernities. Leiden; Boston, Mass: Brill.
Leidy, D. P. (2008). The art of Buddhism: An introduction to its history & meaning. Boston: Shambhala.
Neusner, J. (2006). Religious foundations of Western civilization: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press.
Rotella, M., Gold, S. F., Andriani, L., Scharf, M., & Chenoweth, E. (2003). Antiquity: The civilization of the ancient world. Publishers Weekly, 250(26), 66. Retrieved from HYPERLINK “http://search.proquest.com/docview/197076551?accountid=45049” http://search.proquest.com/docview/197076551?accountid=45049
Sraman, S. M. (2014). Buddhism and innovative sustainable development. Paper presented at the , 4(4) 248-251. Retrieved from HYPERLINK “http://search.proquest.com/docview/1518260910?accountid=45049” http://search.proquest.com/docview/1518260910?accountid=45049
Trigger, B. G. (2003). Understanding early civilizations: A comparative study. Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Zalewski, W. (2012). The crucible of religion: Culture, civilization, and affirmation of life. Eugene, Or: Wipf & Stock.
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