Drugs and society
Drugs and Society
Drugs and Society
A successful strategy is a method that is effective in producing a quality outcome and it is less expensive in its operation. Drug abuse in the world is a serious problem because drug abuse can cause accidents, unintentional injuries, medical problems, the risk of domestic violence, and death. Additionally, substance abuse as the effect of causing health problems such as lung cancers, diabetes, liver cirrhosis, cardiovascular disorder, reduced immune system, sexually transmitted diseases and complicated pregnancy. Lastly, the behavioural problems caused by drug abuse are paranoia, addiction, aggressiveness, impaired judgment, hallucinations, impulsiveness and loss of control. Therefore, drug rehabilitation centers are in place to prevent the negative impact of addiction from happening. Additionally, they also organise campaigns that create awareness that is it is necessary for people in general to avoid drugs and substances abuse.
Different countries of the world are facing the menace of drug abuse. Therefore, different countries have different ways of solving drug abuse issues in their style. For example, the United States of America has a completely different strategy of ending drug abuse cases compared to that of Portugal way.
Drug abuse in the United States is still an issue that is threatening to the society. Today, it has been recorded that 10.8 million youths in the United States abuse hard drugs. The most common drugs used in the United States are Amphetamine, cocaine, crack, LSD, Marijuana, and heroin. The minority group in the United States are the major group victims of drug addicts. They usually say that lack of job opportunity as forced them into indulging in drug abuse behaviour or selling illegal drugs. For instance, the American Indian youth living in reservations has been recorded the highest drug user in this nation.
In detail, drug abuse on American Indian reservations is a serious problem. In America, many non-Indians people view the American Indian tribe as being an anachronism society. Even though, the government acknowledges the fact that the Indians are significant people in the American history using their contemporary Indian crafts and arts, but there is little concern about their way of life. Currently, the American Indians are advocating for self-government, and the State is trying its best to support these Indian reservations tribes. The government support this reservation by allocating $13000 annual house income on the tribe reservation hovers through the tribal government assistance programme. It is speculated that these funds assist the peoples in this reservation to use in drugs abuse activities such as alcohol consumption. For instance, it is estimated that 30 percent of the drug abused in rural Indian reservation is methamphetamine. Meth is 65 percent responsible for many social issues such as divorce, child neglect, abuse and placement of children in foster care (PBS, 2014).
Simultaneously, drug abuse is a serious thing in American Indian reservations. The reason tribal youth in the reservations use substance and alcohol abuse is because of post-traumatic stress, low self-esteem and cultural conflict between their traditional native’s values and that of non-Indian society. For instance, Indian youths are affected by fuzzy self-image, no man’s land of confusion and must also deal with their identity as Indians. Therefore, they face a microcosm of all the challenges with that of their culture struggles and low socioeconomic status. These issues cause the Indians youths to use substance and alcohol abuse. Post-traumatic stress is another factor that cause the American Indians youth to use drugs (PBS, 2014). For example, many immediate families of many Indian youths have experienced involuntary confinement at boarding schools, spiritual insults, and social psychological. This shows that stress is part of the reason American Indians involve in drug abuse in reservations. So far, it is estimated that life expectancy for American Indians in reservations is considerably less than for the non-Indian public. Lastly, substance and alcohol abuse is linked in some way to self-esteem. Unfortunately, specialists have cited results showing that American Indian tribal youth demonstrates lower self-confidence than the non-Indian society in American.
The United States Government has implemented laws that will fight drug addiction. For example, the legal law outlined in the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) that was formed in 1970 has been effective in prosecuting drug user and dealers (Parliament of Canada, 2001). Under that law, no one is allowed to be in procession of Amphetamine, cocaine, crack, LSD, Marijuana, meperidine and heroin except for the research purpose that has been licensed by the National government.
The federal penalty, when caught in illegal possession of drugs, is as follows. Marijuana that is more than 100g can lead to up to 30 years imprisonment or a fine worth two to ten million dollars. Cocaine or crack that is more than 50 g can lead to 30-year imprisonment or a fine worth four to ten million dollars. LSD that is more than 10 g can lead to 30 years imprisonment or fine worth two to 10 million. Lastly, marijuana that is more than 100 kg can lead to 10 years imprisonment or a fine worth five hundred thousand to two million(Parliament of Canada, 2001). With this harsh treatment, the war on drugs has not reduced. Instead, it has increased the price of these drugs, and this motivates drug dealers to come up with different secret unique ways of conducting their business. The Drug enforcement agency, the FBI, the U.S. Marshals service, INTERPOL, the Bureau of Prisons and the Immigration and Naturalization service are tasked with the administration of drug control policy.
Contrarily, the fight on drugs abuse is different in Portugal. Today, the number of people using hard drugs in Portugal is estimated to be 50000 people. In 2001, the Portuguese government in consultations with medical doctor decriminalized the illegal possession and use of drugs like Amphetamine, cocaine, crack, LSD, Marijuana, meperidine and heroin. The policy is summarized under substance control law 30/2000 (Greenwald, 2009). The concept this law is that it aims at preventing and treating instead of prosecuting and jailing users. Through this policy, it is expected that the rate of HIV infection will reduce, and the number of drug-related deaths will decrease. The principle of this policy ensures that the number of drug users will reduce, and the culture surround drug user will change. For example, people reduce stigma levelled at all drug addicts. So far, this strategy has been a success because the number of drug addicts in Portugal has fallen by half since the implementation of this policy.
In Portugal, suspects and victims of drug addiction are subjected to drug rehabilitation programme funded by the government. For instance, in a Portugal government drug rehabilitation facility, the recovery stages are divided into Pre-contemplation, Contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance (Greenwald, 2009).
Involves, Getting sober through ensuring that patient has stopped using the drug he or she was abusing. Intervention service here the patient share their struggle with drug addiction and what induced them into drug addiction behaviours.
Includes Alcohol and Drug detoxification and is the most significant process in the drug addiction therapy. This is because the body gets weaned off. In this stage, the withdrawal signs are properly treated.
It incorporates the rehab treatment, and the patient undergoes mental and physical recovery programme.
Here, the addiction therapy applied and the patient is educated on healthily living clean coping skills that will prevent relapse.
It involves many programmes such as extended care, sober living, recovery programs and relapse prevention strategy. For instance, extended care is an aftercare service that ensures that the patients are enrolled in groups of people with similar challenges to help them motivate each other into living a clean life. Secondly, sober living and is for patients who have completed their rehab and they are guided into adjusting to clean living life. Thirdly, recovery programs and here the patient shows commitment in the process and the family member are thought on how to help the patient to full recovery. Lastly, relapse prevention and the patient are thought on what they should avoid to avoid relapsing. Additionally, they serve the nation in compulsory community service programme.
Far from that, in comparing the United States government ways of fighting drug abuse to that of the Portuguese government, it is clear that the Portugal way is the best. A successful strategy is a method that is effective in producing the quality outcome and the one that is less expensive. Portugal strategy of decriminalized the illegal possession and use of the drug is a good strategy because it reduces the price of these hard drugs. Therefore, this automatically discourages drug dealers who are forced to look for other alternative sources of income that are genuine. Secondly, the cost of running a rehab centre is lower compared to that of running a prison facility. New York Times, revealed a comprehensive analysis that suggest that death row and inmate facing 30 years penalty always costs the California taxpayers approximately $137 million every financial year. While the cost of running a rehab facility of 10000 patients is $ 500000 per year (Wiebke, 2013). Therefore, the Portuguese government is saving more taxpayer money compared to the United States government.
Thirdly, rehab prevents relapse, unlike prison facilities. In Portugal, only 13% of the victims’ subjected through this rehabilitation process will relapse and start using drugs again. However, it has been recorded that 78% of the ex-convict who were in prison for drug possession always relapse and continue with drug addiction habit after being released (Erik, 2011). It has been recorded that the corruption in the prison facility always ensures that inmates have access to the hard drug. Hence, the Portugal strategy grantee the best results in term of reducing drug addiction in the country.
Fourthly, rehab facility has a potential of positively transforming someone’s life compared to a prison cell. Research suggests, 75% of people who were also imprisoned walk out to be twice as lethal compared to their previous crime (Erik, 2011). For example, if someone is convicted for marijuana possession. The next time he or she will be convicted for possession of cocaine or other major crime. Therefore, the United States way of reducing drug abuse is not effective. Instead, it results in naturing international drug dealers. The Portugal way is suitable because the graduates from the rehab facility can be ambassadors for Champaign against drug abuse.
Lastly, from statistics, it has shown that Portugal has reduced drug addiction by 50% since the implementation of substance control law 30/2000 that decriminalized the illegal possession and use of drugs. On the other hand, the United State government has reduced drug addiction cases by 10% since the implementation of the legal law outlined in the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) that was formed in 1970 that has been effective in prosecuting drug user and dealers. Hence, the gap between the Portugal system and the United States system is 30 %. Meaning the Portugal strategy is more effective in producing quality outcomes compared to the United States (Domoslawski, Siemaszko, Open Society Institute, Open Society Foundations, Global Drug Policy Program& Helsińska, 2011). Rehab transforms people into being a responsible citizen. Hence, they will get jobs after completing their rehab program, and this will raise the country capita income. Unlike prison, that locks someone using taxpayer money. This reduces the country GDP because it increases the government expenditure.
Concerning that, different countries of the world are faced with the problem of drug abuse. Therefore, different countries have different ways of solving drug abuse issues in their nation. For example, the United States of America has a completely different strategy of ending drug abuse compared to that of Portugal. The United States has implemented the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) that was formed in 1970 has been effective in prosecuting drug user and dealers. Alternatively, the Portuguese government has implemented the substance control law 30/2000 that decriminalized the illegal possession and use of drugs. So far, the Portuguese strategy is turning up to be effective compared to that the United States. For example, Portugal has reduced drug addiction by 50% since the implementation of substance control law 30/2000. On the other hand, the United State government has reduced drug addiction cases by 10% since the implementation of the legal law outlined in the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) of 1970.
Domoslawski, A., Siemaszko, H., Open Society Institute., Open Society Foundation., Open Society Foundations., Global Drug Policy Program., & Helsińska Fundacja Praw Człowieka. (2011). Drug Policy in Portugal: The benefits of decriminalising drug use. Warsaw, Poland: Open Society Institute
Erik Kain.(2011). Ten years after decriminalization, drug, abuse down by half in Portugal. Retrieved at.http://www.forbes.com/sites/erikkain/2011/07/05/ten-years-after-decriminalization-drug-abuse-down-by-half-in-portugal/
Greenwald, G., & Cato Institute. (2009). Drug Decriminalization in Portugal: Lessons for creating fair and successful drug policies. Washington, D.C: CATO Institute.
Parliament of Canada.(2001). National drug policy: United States of America. Retrieved at. http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/sen/committee/371/ille/library/dolin2-e.htmPBS. (2014). A social history of America`s most popular drugs. Retrieved at.http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/buyers/socialhistory.html
Wiebke Hollersen.(2013). This is working: Portugal, 12 years after decriminalising drugs. Retrieved at.http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/evaluating-drug-decriminalization-in-portugal-12-years-later-a-891060.html
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