In the multicultural and the post-modern worlds of criminal justice, the variable of race remains fundamental to theory and practice. The discipline of criminal justice always has the imagined differences between “criminals and non-criminals.” While trying to make sense of these differences, every framework has always addressed race among other variables such as class and gender. Official record studies have consistently shown that Blacks exhibit relatively higher involvement in gang-related crimes compared to the whites (Freng & Taylor, 2016). Since early 20th century, racial differences in the rate of juvenile and adult offending has repeatedly been observed in the US. Consequently, the lifetime risk of being arrested or incarcerated for Hispanic and Black are relatively much higher compared to the whites (Piquero & Brame, 2008). Therefore, the race factor has always been a critical variable in explaining the emergence of gangs within minority communities.
In order to explain why race is a critical variable in the two competing explanations have been proposed to explain the racial disparities. The first clarification is racial profiling such that the police use race as a critical factor to decide an arrest or interrogate individuals from certain ethnic minorities. It involves differential police presence, profiling, and discrimination in the correctional and court systems. The second explanation is that cert…
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