DISASTER IN THE WEST
Disaster in the West
1. Definition of Yersinia Pestis and its forms
Yersinia pestis refers to a bacterium, highly common among human beings and animals. The bacteria are pole bent coccobacillus, and Gram-negative. Scientists classify the bacteria among the facultative anaerobic bacterium, a common group of bacteria. A Swiss scientist discovered the bacteria during an epidemic in Hong Kong. The bacterium occurs in three distinct forms; bubonic, pneumonic and septicemic. The bacterium has caused massive deaths during three separate periods in some parts of the world. The bacterium causing disease is still common in the world. However, medicines available today can treat and cure the bacterium infections. Contrastingly, some of the non-human mammals face threats from the bacterium.
2. A. The Jacquerie
The Jacquerie occurred in 1358 and began after the King of Navarre was released from prison. The nation began to experience strange happenings within some of the towns. Wicked men gathered around the Beauvais region and agreed to kill all noblemen because the men felt that the nobles and wealthy had betrayed the society. The wicked undertook the evil acts in Marne situated in Valois, Beauvais in Brie and Lyonnais in the fief of Coucy and areas surrounding the Soissons. The men initially gathered and set off to destroy, maim and kill a knight that lived nearby. The wicked men killed the knight, the knight’s children, and wife and eventually set ablaze the castle. The wicked men repeated the same evil acts to another knight, nobilities residing in different areas and wealthy individuals. The evil actions attracted more men, and the groups’ numbers grew tremendously. The evil acts forced the nobles and wealthy to flee from the towns to safer locations.
The evil men elected Jack Goodman, from Clermont in the regions of Beauvais to lead the barbarous group. The evil men continued the barbaric acts in towns such as Amiens, Montdidier and Corbie and areas engulfing Paris, Noyon, Soissons, and Ham. The gentry were unhappy with the evil deeds of the wicked men and asked for help from friends in Hainault, Hasbaye, Flanders and Brabant. Natives and foreign men united and killed many of the evil men though the wicked men had grown to over 100,000 men. The dreadful acts in France forced the Count of Foix and Captal de Buch to traveled further South to secure the town. The two found noble ladies in Meaux, living in fear of being attacked by the wicked men. News of the residence of the noble women within Meaux, attracted wicked men in large numbers to the town, to kill the noble women. The men marched to the town and proceeded to the marketplace where the noble women lived. The Knights crushed and killed the men, and completely burnt the town of Meaux. Later, Sir Enguerrand led the Knights in killing the remaining evil men within the state.
2. B. Causes of Wat Tyler’s Rebellion
Wat Tyler’s rebellion resulted from the enforcement of an unfair justice system. The court disregarded lawsuits brought about by peasants leading to a backlog of cases within the judiciary. Furthermore, the immense powers given to commissioners allowed the commissioners to preside over cases directly affecting the commissioners. Moreover, teachers of the law died from the plague, establishing an obstacle in the pursuit of civil liberties by the peasants. Strict implementation of tax collection was the last nail in the coffin, thus resulting in the conflict.
3. A. Salic Law on Female Inheritance
The Frankish King introduced the Salic Law, that prohibited inheritance of property by women. The law provided an elaborate order system for inheritance of property. The law allowed women to inherit movables or consumables in most communities in ancient Europe. The law required the subdivision of property among brothers, according to seniority. The law further provided for succession by males only, through the direct and full function of the decree. However, a semi-Salic edition provided for the succession of women only if men were non-existent. The woman must be closest to the heir and succeeded by a male within the household. The condition in the long-run fulfills the law on prohibition of female successors or inheritors of property.
4. A. Philip’s VI Lineage
Philip VI claimed the throne from Charles of Valois, the son of Philip III, the original heir to the kingdom. Philip’s succession to the throne lay credence to the Salic law, which required males only to succeed as heirs to the Kingdom.
4. B. Edward’s III Lineage
Edward III claimed the throne from Edward II, the son of Philip IV. Philip Iv was the second son of Philip III. Edward III succeeded to the throne after deposing his father, Mortimer, who had declared himself the ruler of the country. The dispute on the application of Salic law on the succession of Edward III to the throne was dismissed and led to the Hundred Year’s War. However, the according to the Salic law, succession through a daughter of the heir was acceptable as the apparent heir after the death of the ruler.
5. Reasons England won the Battle of Crecy
England won the battle militarily because the army was adept with the utilization of terrain and tactical flexibility, learned from previous battles with the Scots, Saxons, and Vikings. The English won the battle through the use of the longbow and targeted the infantry, killing most of the French army. Moreover, England used the canon, militarily crippling the French army.
6. Impact of the Battle of Poitiers
The heavy defeat of the French and the capture of the King by the English led to lawlessness in France. Robbers stole from the coffers of the state while the noble despoiled the poor. None of the noble of the citizens protected the kingdom from the enemies. Moreover, the French introduced permanent taxation to pay for the King’s ransom.
7. A. Battle of Sluys (1340)
The battle involved the French and the England within the sea. The French were under Behuchet and Quieret and stationed at the sea in a defensive line. Edward’s planned to invade part of French. The English sailed through and sent the archers and the infantry to attack the French ships. The English further proceeded in the land after conquering the French in the seas. The English used the long bows and military to subdue the enemy. Blood covered the sea, a testimony to the massive loss of wire. The French terribly lost the war.
7. B. Battle of La Rochelle (1372)
The English under Pembroke proceeded to La Rochelle and met strong military resistance from the Castilians. The French soldiers outnumbered the English soldiers and shot down two ships before dusk, on the first day of fighting. The English set base on the land while the Castilians anchored in the sea, in preparation for battle the next day. The English were unable to escape during the night because the place was militarily disadvantageous to the English soldiers. The following morning the Castilians set ablaze the English ships, using oil and arrows to burn the ships completely. Many of the English soldiers died and a few thousand captured as slaves by the Castilians.
8. Explain why the English won the Battle of Agincourt militarily
The English military won the battle through open combat, tactical terrain and use of modern weaponry. The English used longbows to attack the French and used arrows to attack the defensive battalion of the English. The English took advantage of the disorganization within the ranks of the French army. The French positional terrain was disastrous leading to poor vision. The English used swords, mallets, and hatchets. Furthermore, The English attacked the French through the flanks, defeating the French.
9. Treaty of Troyes
The treaty provided that Henry V would be heir to the throne, through the marriage of Charles VI’s daughter. The agreement disinherited Dauphin Charles VI and the agreement endorsed by the Estate’s General of France.
10. Brief story of Joan Arc
Joan was born in 1412 and believed God’s intervention would help her lead the army against the English and win the war. Joan had no previous military experience and was born a peasant in the society. Joan convinced the prince and led the army to a memorable victory in Orleans. The Anglo-Burgundian army captured her and sentenced to death for crimes of dissent and witchcraft. Joan today resembles the unity of the nation. The church canonized Joan as a saint in 1920.
11. Avignon Papacy
The Avignon papacy is the period between 1309 and 1377 that seven consecutive popes lived in Avignon, rather than Rome. The demise of the Pope led to the election of Pope Clement, who chose to live in France. The successors of Pope Clement, all French, also resided in Avignon. However, Gregory XI finally transferred to Rome and ended the papal residence at Avignon. However, in 1378 relations between the Cardinals deteriorated and resulted in the Western Schism. Consequently, the second line of illegitimate popes from Avignon emerged.
12. Origins of Western Schism
Disagreements among the cardinals resulted in the creation of a splinter group. Moreover, Romans preferred a Roman pope and therefore, Prompting the election of Pope Urban VI. The Pope Urban VI was violently temperate, distrustful and reformist. A large number of the Cardinals regrouped and elected Pope Clement VII. The pope resided in Avignon, re-establishing Papal residence in the region.
13. Nations Preference of the Pope
Leon, France, Castile, Aragon, Cyprus, Naples, Burgundy, Scotland and Savoy preferred the Avignon claimant to the papacy. The Holy Roman Empire, England, Hungary, Ireland, Flanders, Poland, Denmark, Portugal, Norway, parts of Northern Italy, Sweden and Republic of Venice preferred the Roman papacy.
14. A. Goal of the Council of Pisa
The major aim of the Council of Pisa was to end Western Schism, through removing the popes from Avignon and Rome and establishing a universal papacy.
14. B. Treatment of Pope Benedict XIII and Gregory XII representatives
The antipopes’ representatives were banished from the Universal church and cast out from the Pontifical positions each of the representatives held. Gregory’s representatives fled from the city and Benedict’s representatives laughed off from the council’s meeting.
15. A. Pisan Pope
The Pisan council elected Pope Alexander V, as the legitimate pope of the universal church.
15. B. Salus populi suprema lex esto
The supreme law precludes the welfare of the state. The phrase was predominantly used in the most coat of arms and as a motto by global organizations.
16. A. Strength and weaknesses of the New Pope’s position
The Pope oversaw the affairs of the sacred colleges and control over the Roman Empire. The pope received sympathy and support from diverse kingdoms, enhancing the positions of the officeholder. The Pope was devoid of Schism, unlike the two antipopes, therefore, establishing a powerhouse within the church. However, the pope’s position was devoid of universal acknowledgment of by the Christendom. The eventual election of a new pope by the Council of the Constance shows the pope’s position was always precarious.
16. B. Number of popes after the changes
The decision by the Pisan council to elect Pope Alexander V, thus three popes were in office at the time. Pope Gregory XII and Benedict III were the other popes in the different papacy enclaves.
17. A. Antipope John XXIII
Antipope John XXIII was the heir of Pope Alexander V. The Medici family hugely supported the pope.
17. B. Deprivation of Antipope John XXIII
The failed invasion of Rome by Antipope John XXIII led the antipope to flee the Town. John later met Sigismund and agreed to convene the Council of Constance, that approved the election of a new pope.
18. A. Council of Constance solutions to Schism
The council deposed all the three claimants to the papal position. The council administered on national issues, responses to conflicts and civil liberties of the pagans. Furthermore, the Council assisted in the civil prosecution of Jan Hus. The solutions resolved the Schism existent within the church.
18. B. Gregory XII Resolutions
The council approved the resignation of the Pope Gregory XII and elected the pope as the Santa Ruffina and the cardinal bishop of Porto. The position ranked Gregory as the highest ranking official within the papacy. Moreover, cardinals under the pope were confirmed as true cardinals of the church.
19. A. Sacrosancta (1415)
The Council of Constance through canons asserted derivation of God’s power and higher authority of the council to the See of Rome. The council derived influence through the power of the Lord and tied future popes to the decision of reform of the church. 19. B. Frequens (1417)
Frequens symbolized the decree to rebalance power through a council, convened periodically. Mosts popes were against such a decree within the papacy and later changed the decree to convene the council, as perceived suitable by the popes.
20. A. Council of Basle deprivation of Pope Eugenius (Eugene) IV
The council deprived the pope off the papacy because the pope convoked the Council of Ferrera, a rival of Council of the Basel and appended on the creation of the ambassadors of the Roman Empire.
20. B. Felix V unsuccessful in rebellion against Eugenius IV
Felix was unsuccessful because the Eugenius enjoyed the support of other enclaves and disregarded heretical aspersions within the papacy.
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