Depression and intelligence of African American: Only child vs. siblings

0 / 5. 0

Depression and intelligence of African American: Only child vs. siblings

Category: Research Proposal

Subcategory: Psychology

Level: College

Pages: 20

Words: 5500

Depression and Intelligence of African American child
Student’s Name
University Affiliation
Depression and Intelligence of African American Child
The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the woes and accomplishments of a single child as compared to African American children who have siblings, in the context of depression and intelligence. This article specifically leans on kids from the African American race. This paper examines how depression and the level of intelligence from the perspective of a single child and other siblings. The dissertation scrutinizes why only children are more vulnerable to depression and more intelligent than siblings raised together. Analysis of the success of both parties is, therefore, vital by collecting data from archives, journals, and published reports. This desertion uses data that was collected and analyzed by two renowned psychologists, Stewart, and Eckstein with the help of their fellow psychologists. The two were after solving the mystery of how birth order affects our personality. This article, therefore, challenges the argument that depression may affect one’s personality and destiny. However, research shows that although one may be raised as the only child, this is not a limitation to success. This proves that a kid may be depressed but may prosper and become more successful as compared to an African American child who was raised with other siblings.
The chief objective of this study is to examine how a birth order or how one is raised affects his or her personality. Individuals mostly acquire their personal traits from their upbringing. However, it’s easier to examine the behavior of a kid and then compare this with his or her adult life to note the transition and change in the trait. Being born and raised as the only child defines one’s behavior and characters. However, being born and raised in a family with other kids also influences individual character. Single children are more secretive about their personal lives and can merely share their problems with their colleagues. Instead, they keep problems to themselves, and the only person close to them is their parents. Siblings raised together are talkative and social and can easily share their grievances for assistance. They are considered as the most successful kids in the society as they venture into careers such as nursing, engineering and the sector of information technology (SKINNER & FOX-FRANCOEUR, 2010). However, African American children raised in the midst of their siblings have varying traits and interest depending on the order of birth. First born children are very responsible and mostly successful in life while middle-born, and the last born are more social and fun-loving. Most of them pursue careers in law enforcement, public service, education, and arts. Most of them seems to be in tranquil on their current success and are content without the urge to learn more.
Literature Review
Both Eckstein (2012) and Stewart (2001) have a similar view concerning the relationship between personalities and birth order. The two psychologists believe that the birth order ranks affect how an individual behaves when faced with various life situations. The two argues that rankings in the birth order affect the intelligence and the vulnerability to developing depression. Eckstein and Stewart have also conducted several surveys to analyze this the emotional relationship between the birth order and the personality of an individual. However, Dunkel (2009) has a similar opinion, and his analysis narrows to the analysis of single children and how their raising affects their personality.Beer & Horn (2000) have similar opinions to prove why birth order stereotypes may be wrong and misleading. The two argue that the rearing order has major effects on personality development. Cheng (2013) also holds that personal achievements are implicated on the birth rank.
The research survey entails examining the selected sample of persons for purposes of testing their level of intelligence and their vulnerability to developing depression. The research was therefore conducted to examine their achievements of the selected individual in their academics and their occupational outcomes. The ability to deal and make decision and judgments is used to determine their level of intelligence. However, the behaviors and the ability to deal and cope up with stressful moments of the selected individuals is also used to determine their vulnerability of being depressed (Cheng et. al 2013). Their actions in the quest of trying to undertake and accomplish our personal goals may also be used to evaluate depression and the level of intelligence for the African American child.
According to Stewart (2001) being born and raised as the only child has several merits and drawbacks as compared to a family of several siblings. However, these factors define our personal traits and achievements. African American children raised as the only kids in the family are more conscientious and end up being the most successful ion life. They tend to be more intelligent as compared to kids raised with their siblings. Only kids spend most of their time with adults as a quest for learning new things. They yearn for education and knowledge most during their early childhood. Due to loneliness, kids raised as the single children tend to suffer from depression, unlike their counterparts who are rarely depressed since they have brothers and sisters to share their problems with and get help. Being the only kids in the family, they have a perfectionist attitude where they are always responsible, diligent and conscientious. Most of them land in most of the important professions in the society.
According to Eckstein et al. (2012), single children have the highest rates of behavioral problems. They are therefore more vulnerable to cases of depression. However, Eckstein also points out that siblings often share experiences and the parent’s attention. If they happen to have any issues, they always open up simply for assistance regardless of their stage of birth. Siblings act as models, advisors and even caregivers to their young brothers and sisters. Due to their selfish nature, single children tend to be least interested in affiliation. However, most of them are typically way mature for their age due to the time spent with grown-ups. They are therefore high achievers who are always longing for knowledge. Single children are among the most intelligent children in the society.
Birth order plays a vital role in determining how our personality is framed and developed (Dunkel, Harbke & Papini, 2009). Dunkel and his colleagues point out that some kids were born to rebel. These are mostly the single children who always opt to follow their path. These kids will halt at nothing till they are prosperous. This is the reason most successful individuals in the society were born and raised as the single children. Every kid tries to develop his or her personality by filling a given niche in the family. In the quest to maneuver through their childhood lives, single children are depressed although they tend to be secretive about issues their grievances. However, this has minimal implications for their later lives. They are mature, and most of them work in law enforcement plan and the field of information technology.
According to Beer & Horn (2000), it is easy to predict the score of the psychological birth scale of kids raised singly and those raised with other siblings. Statistics proved that older siblings and single children recorded the highest percentage of intelligence score. However, only kids recorded the highest proportion of depression in the psychological birth scale. While other siblings are outgoing and social, single children are enigmatic and tend to keep their issues private. These kids, therefore, record the highest percentage of depression among all other African American children. Their performance in school and, however, exemplary and most of the time they are envied and act as role models.
Harris (2000) on the other hand contrasts both Eckstein and Stewart to argue that one’s personality is defined by their genes, physicality, age spacing and the gender. He, therefore, points out that the birth order has meaningless effects on the intelligence of a kid and the vulnerability to being depressed. There are also other researcher’s leans on the notion that although personality is based on the birth order, more traits originate from our genes. Schwär & Mahony (2012) believes that there are several prosocial tendencies that are pivotal in determining individual personality traits of intelligence and ability to develop depression. However, Førland, Korsvik & Christophersen (2012) argues that birth order may be related to birth order but depression is influenced by other social practices that surround an individual. SKINNER & FOX-FRANCOEUR (2010) argues that factors such as gender, age spacing, physicality are more vital while analyzing factors of depression in a family.
Harris (2000) points out that African American children raised as the single children acquire the traits of being diligent, perfectionists and conscientious from adults since they spend most of their time with grown-ups. Harris contradicts every writer and psychologists to argue that birth order barely affects our personality. He uses the context-specific model of analyzing individuals to examine personal behavior and traits. The central question here addresses whether personality is stable or is it dependent on the context of a particular situation. He claims that any African American child regardless of his position or state of birth order can pursue any profession, and he or she can suffer from depression. Harris maintains that personal traits are dependent on the current situation and individuals will react differently when any situation arises regardless of how they were raised in the family.
According to Førland, Korsvik & Christophersen (2012), factors such as temperament, the gender, physicality, specialness and the age spacing factor mostly influence our personality and behaviors. To start with, genetics influences how we behave, how we act, the decisions we make and the entire personality. The vulnerability of being affected by depression and the level of intelligence are mostly dependent on the genes that one was born with. However, genetics may be defined from the parent’s perspective or from personal genes that one is born with.
Sibling relationships are also pivotal in determining the level of intelligence and the vulnerability to developing depression. Anyone raised in a peaceful family where siblings are loving and caring for each other is considered more intelligent. This is because they cooperate to aid each other while offering advice accordingly. A violent family raises violent kids who are always in constant conflicts with each other. Schwär & Mahony (2012) therefore argues that the birth order has minimal effects to personality development.
This research proposal is based on research conducted by sampling several kids to analyze their behavioral problems and the score of their IQ levels to determine their standard of intelligence and vulnerability to developing depression. The research entails collecting their educational achievements by analyzing their performances in schools and the highest level of education achieved. However, their participation in other extracurricular activities and their accomplishments in these fields is also be used to determine their level of intelligence. Their ability to make informed decisions and judgments based on the situation at hand is also used to analyze their IQ levels which is a direct implication of their level of intelligence.
Behavioral traits were also examined to determine the individual vulnerability to developing depression. This includes all instances of good conduct and also misconduct using behavioral reports of the sampled individuals. The ability to deal with various stressful moments is also a pivotal point when analyzing the depression factor. They are classified based on the actions they take to handle and cope with any stressful moments that face them. The survey also encompasses any other factors that may expose one to developing depression (SKINNER & FOX-FRANCOEUR, 2010). However, sibling relationships also are used to determine the ability to deal with stressful moments. This move was meant to analyze whether the most social children were less depressed and whether their relationships with others persons in the society helped them cope with depression
This study is a qualitative analysis of data collected by Stewart, A. E., Stewart, E. A., & Campbell, L. F. (2001) from the article The Relationship of psychological birth order to the family atmosphere and personality, Journal of Individual Psychology. Alan E. Stewart is a distinguished psychologist from the University of Georgia and his research on how birth order affects personality is impeccable. Allan and his colleagues combined efforts by analyzing numerous journals on psychological birth order. The psychologist has dedicated most of his time while examining this topic in depth. In 2001, these renowned psychologists opted to undertake research to examine and clarify what they had already reviewed in previews articles and pieces of art from their predecessors.
Synthesis of this data is paramount in the quest to understand how the birth order influences our personality. This case study included examining the two gender groups and consider how each was affected by the birth order. The agenda of this research is to analyze how the raising of a single kid differs with the bringing up of children with other siblings. However, this dissertation only focuses on the African American race of children. Data collected composed of only 10 % of the African-American youths from the entire sample collected. The research also encompassed analyzing all the aspects of personality and traits that are mostly influenced by the birth order. The research composed all levels of individual and their position in the birth order strata.
Stewart and his colleagues have delineated actual from the psychological birth order in the family. The actual birth order is the precise numeric rank order into which one is born to his original family. On the other hand, the psychological birth order is the self-alleged position that one occupies in the family. These two birth order factors are entirely and different in defining our personality and traits. Through the research, Stewart tries to confirm that the self-perceived notion of birth order can hurt one’s traits and how minimal actual birth rank positions affects the character (Cheng et al. 2013). However, Stewart points out that the two factors of personality might deviate for some purposes which range from the size of the family, the degree at which the kids are separated in the birth order and other instances such as the illness of one child. All these factors affect how one perceives his or her position in the family.
Daniel Eckstein and Jason A. Kaufman have also done extensive research on the role of birth order in personality based on an Enduring Intellectual Legacy of Alfred Adler. Their research is based on the contribution of Alfred Adler in the study of analyzing how birth order affects one’s personality. They used the two present this issue from the context of two developmental approaches that examines how family systems influences the traits of an individual. However, Eckstein and Jason A. Kaufman have achieved their goal by statistically analyzing an empirical case study that shows differences in birth order. The two also compares the differences between ordinal and psychological birth order. Eckstein and Jason A. Kaufman points out that actual birth order has the same effect as psychological birth order and the intellectual development of any individual. In 2000, Eckstein took to review almost 151 research articles to examine the role of birth order in defining our personality and individual traits. Based on two surveys that were ten years apart, Eckstein statistically evaluated the research data to develop an outline of how birth order related to individual’s traits. In his research, he incorporated all members in the birth order ranking including the single children in the family.
The outcomes of this study are useful in the analysis of the intellectual ability of African American children and its relation to birth order. The IQ scores of the siblings vary with the birth order ranking since they are all raised differently. The only child has high levels of intelligence although they are more susceptible to incidences of depression. They are warmly welcomed into the family as any other first born child would be welcomed. However, as time changes their traits change after they realize that they are the only children in the family (Førland, Korsvik, & Christophersen, 2012). This is also the turning point. Parents set high expectations for these kids, and they, therefore, have to work hard with the aim of achieving the set goal and targets. They have the greatest need for achievement upon realizing their position in the family.
Single kids mature early enough and, therefore, record the highest levels of intellectual ability as compared to first-born. This is because they devote most of their time with grownups. The grownups at this category are mostly their parents and close family friends and relatives. They are always inspired to learn and understand why life is laws the way it is. At times, they even set up experiments and researchers to explain the occurrence of a particular phenomenon in their daily lives (Cheng et al. 2013). Their urge for learning, therefore, places them in the category of best performers in the class. They try to find solutions to challenges they face in their daily lives.
According to Stewart & Campbell (2001), most of the only child occupy the most important occupations in the society. This is due to the ability to mature very fast and fit in the labor market as compared to the other birth order ranks. They can find solutions to most of our daily lives problems and are thus suitable for the fields of engineering, technology and medicine. However, their bias nature makes them unsuitable for the areas of law making, administration and in teaching.
Single children are relatively social especially with other kids in the same age group. They spend most of their time alone and choose their friends based on the line of interests. They will only interact with kids whom they share the same interests. They are also secretive and barely opens their hearts to any passers-by or even to those who are considered their closest friends. When they are faced with troubling issues, they tend to keep them to themselves. Else, they share they share their problems with grown-ups especially their parents who might have minimal effect on altering the specified issue. Despite being close to their parents and other adults; they spend most of their time with other kids in school learning. This bunch of kids is, therefore, more vulnerable to suffer from depression as compared to any other category in the birth rank. However, being born singly exposes them to being selfish (Beer & Horn, 2000). The selfishness personality keeps friends and other close individuals away. This leaves the only child with very minimal persons to share their troubling moments. Am sure no one would prefer being close and intimate to selfish individual unless they also possess the selfish trait.
However, the only children record the highest levels of behavioral problem. Being raised solely minimally exposes them to the world as compared to other siblings such as the last born who have much to learn from the eldest child. They are therefore faced with other behavioral problems since they consider themselves freer to engage in any activity. They will tend to test behaving differently in a different situation to undertake a study and know the consequences of undertaking any task. For example, the only child will be eager to learn sea diving is does not know the outcome and any precaution measures. They are therefore more exploring that any other groups of kids and they will often fall into temptations that may lead them to get involves in illegal activities.
According to Stewart & Campbell (2001), the only child records the lowest general need for connection. They are the first to discourage teamwork and to work in groups. Instead, they advocate for individualism where each person should work alone to accomplish their agendas. Most times they end up in conflicts due to their disagreeing nature. Constant conflicts distant everyone from their presence and they, therefore, have very minimal friends. However, they also neglect the ideas of others and deems them as invaluable only to be left out when others succeed when others don’t. They also brag and boost on their successes and perceives other as helpless and unable to accomplish their set objectives. All these behavioral changes affect their ability to socialize with everyone. They only keep a small group of individual whom they keep most of their personal secrets. All these behavioral challenged exposes them to the vulnerability of becoming depressed during their early lives.
First-born children have the full support of their parents until the arrival of the second born. It is during this span that they can be considered the only children. The first born child is the joy of any new family, and they will be eager to welcome their first sire line. The parents are always loving and absorbing to them since they are the set Pacers in the family. Being the joy and the pride of the family is the concern of the parents, they feel so important and dominant in the family.
The advert of the second born is the commencement of stressful moments for the first born. More attention is drifted to the new member of the family. They, therefore, feel threatened as more focus has been moved away from them. Depression may also set in at this stage if parents are not careful and cautious enough to consider the first born. They may be easily swayed if the social drift is abrupt. However, this is also the start of creating thinking. Once a first born child realizes that less attention is awarded to him or her, they opt to do things to prove their worth in the family (Førland, Korsvik, & Christophersen, 2012). They are also the role models and the succeeding kid’s looks upon them for advice and other support. They must, therefore, set their targets higher so that others can follow in their footsteps. They are always keen to avoid being a disgrace to their families.
According to Eckstein et al. (2012), the first born children are also referred as the mirror of the family. This change may also deem their success and progress, but luckily enough they adapt quickly to changes. The eldest kids take a short period to adjust and accept the notion of being the eldest and others needs to be attended since they are younger. They are therefore affinitive when under stress. This is because of their ability to handle their problems with ease. First-born kids are eager to share their troubling moments with other first born of other families. However, they may receive consolation after realizing that others too have problems that at times are worse.
The high motivation of the oldest kids keeps them always on the pace in the quest to achieve their set goals and objectives. The basic understanding that they are no longer kids motivates them to work hard. They always look forward to becoming role models in the family. Some of them work very hard to make sure that the succeeding siblings do not face the same problems they faced. Starting a family is always not that easy as many would anticipate. The joy of bearing and raising the first born African American child may, therefore, tarnish and hopelessness sets. Some first born kids are therefore trained to be harder than any other rank of siblings in the birth order. This is the reason first born children are more aligned with success (Beer & Horn, 2000). They are more intelligent to handle situations at hand and the problems that face them in their daily lives.
According to Stewart & Campbell (2001), the intellectual nature of the first born African American children is also notable by their educational capabilities. Their determination makes them the highest achieving group in the birth order ranking. They record the highest IQ score as compared to the succeeding siblings. Their success in academics is impeccable, and this is intertwined with the need for achievement to become the most intelligent and knowledgeable individuals in their society. They are represented by any bunch of students who manage to be admitted to colleges and universities. Fruitful. Their focus keeps them on the pace to read, work smart and the baseline is to become the most prosperous and successful individuals in the society. The yearning for success makes them not easily vulnerable to any decision or activity that may sway them from their central focus that is education.
The ability of the first born African American child to make informed decisions and judgments makes them best suitable for the engineering and medicine professions. Their ability to make informed decisions on their own also makes them appropriate in the field of law making. According to Eckstein et al. (2000), most lawyers and other members of the judicial system are first born in their families. This is because they can analyze and judge various incidences based on the legality of the issue of discussion. They are also neutral when discussing or conversing with other individuals. Most of them know how to avoid disagreements that may lead to conflicts by avoiding the most sensitive section of a particular topic of study that is a clear implication of their creative nature. However, they exhibit few behavioral problems since they are pace setters in the family, and all the succeeding siblings are looking up on them. Some parents set the limits of achievements so high such that some are forced to hold their activities while others are attended. Some are obliged to strive for success so that they can take care of their younger brothers and sisters.
The middle African American child is the central figure of the family. They are moderately affected by depression, and they are also relatively intelligent. The middle child finds an already established foundation in the family. Their impact is, therefore, impacted in the family since the first born kids already formed a foundation. Parents understand their problems and situations more judged on how they raised the first born child. They are agreeable and rare questions in the most situation due to their restraint character (Schwär, & Mahony, 2012). This category of persons is considered to be the most sociable as compared to other birth order ranks. They share their achievements and downfalls with anyone regardless of their age. This means that the middle African American child can mingle with the youngest and the eldest individuals in the society.
However, Eckstein (2012), points out that these kids have the greatest feeling of not belonging. Instead, they feel like they are outcasts since they are minimally involved, and parents have minimal attention on them. The notion of feeling neglected may expose them to depression if they are not accorded the necessary moral and social support. This is because they fear to have their voices heard as they are relatively courageous. Due to sibling rivalry, the middle children are always rebellious to whatever the eldest or the youngest have to say. They feel that their opinions are neutral, and thus they should be considered. Sometimes they end up arguing with the elder children since they feel that their views and concerns are neglected (Cheng et al. 2013). At most times, they will always lose against their elder siblings. The middle African American child is never burdened nor overindulged, but they are mostly well adjusted regardless of the current situation and look of things. In their quest to please others, they tend to be more social and thus less likely to develop depression.
When analyzing the intelligence factor of the middle child, it is worth to note that they are exemplary good in social skills. Their IQ level score is slightly lower than that of first born kids by 1.5 points. They also enjoy a 1.5-point lead in IQ score over the youngest child in the family. All this classifies the middle African American child are relatively intelligent. Most of them have occupations that are aligned to their social nature. They are therefore suited for the fields of education where they make good teachers and also guidance counselors. The middle child can also be suited for the law enforcement program where they are very stringent and considerable when enforcing laws as police officers.
According to Eckstein et al. (2000), the youngest child is mostly classified under the category of attention seekers. They are rarely affected by depression, but they are relatively intelligent. Research shows that they have the lowest IQ level score as compared to their elder siblings. At most times, they are relaxed since they are looked after by the first born and the middle-born children. However, this bunch of African American children tends to be overindulged on anything they set their feet. This leads to poor social empathy that may expose them to incidences of depression. The attention of the parents is all drawn to them, and sometimes parents tend to be overprotective giving them room to brag. Sometimes they end up on the wrong with the notion that their parents will always support them since they are the youngest.
According to Stewart & Campbell (2001), the youngest child may feel less experienced and capable as compared to the middle and the firstborn siblings who have already learned how to handle their personal issues. They have social skills that lure others into helping and doing things for them due to their charming nature. They have the ability to socialize with all individuals in the society and are free to share their grievances for assistance. Due to their social nature and the presence of the first and the middle child, they are less vulnerable to depression. Although they are the most disagreeing in the family, they have born extroverts and more open as compared to other siblings. Their differing nature makes them more rebellious and stubborn in the family. However, their arguments are immature despite their rebellious nature. The youngest African American child is mostly spoilt and outgoing, and they prefer spending most of their time having fun. They always have the notion that everyone loves them and, therefore, everyone will be ready to back them up when found in the wrong acts.
The outgoing nature of the youngest child exposes them to psychiatric disorders and other behavioral problems. Most of them end up abusing alcohol and another type of drugs. Drug abuse may expose them to depression if they are not attended to on time. Their IQ level score is slightly 1.5 points lower than that of the middle African American child. Most of them may end up pursuing careers in arts. However, most of them enjoy arts and education as compared to other scientific occupations such as engineering and medicine.
However, the power of the sibling bond is more superior in the analysis of personal traits and behaviors. Siblings play a pivotal role in each other’s lives as teachers, caregivers, and companions to each other. Unlike the only African American child who have receives no significant influence from anyone, siblings can influence the development of their fellow siblings. Siblings can maintain a positive tie between each other to facilitate cognitive development, providing emotional support and advice over adverse life events that include marital conflicts and poor peer relationships (SKINNER & FOX-FRANCOEUR, 2010). However, sibling rivalry and jealousy have always been documented since the ancient times. It all starts with sibling bullying that later develops into physical or psychological aggression.
Unfortunately, the effects of sibling rivalry and assault have been neglected and ignored possible because they seem typical and usual. According to Eckstein et al. (2012), sibling bullying doubles the risk of developing mental problems such as depression and anxiety disorder. Some siblings at times wishes they had never been born due to the torment and torture they have to undergo at the hands of their siblings. This happens, especially if the parents are not keen enough to monitor and control their African American children. The sibling relationship is, therefore, vital in maintaining the mental well-being of siblings.
Most researchers such as Eckstein and Stewart consider birth order as important as gender and genetics while defining personality. However, sometimes this is not always the case and probably only on very few occasion are the norms that relate birth order and personality effective. In other cases, factors such as temperament, the gender, physicality, specialness and the age spacing factor mostly influence our personality and behaviors. To start with, genetics influences how we behave, how we act, the decisions we make and the entire personality (Førland, Korsvik, & Christophersen, 2012). The vulnerability of being affected by depression and the level of intelligence are mostly dependent on the genes that one was born with. However, genetics may be defined from the parent’s perspective or from personal genes that one is born with.
The gender factor also defines our roles and responsibilities in the family. The roles that one takes may shape their personality based on various family factors. Based on the roles of the kid, the personality of the first born female will be different from that of a first born male but some traits might be intertwined due to their position in the family. Age and the size of a child are closely related. At most cases the eldest are always physically bigger than their succeeding siblings and therefore must be ready to assist them and protect them in most situations (Cheng et al. 2013). They should also have the ability to cope with challenges that might crop up in terms of depression to prove their ability to be good role models in the family. However, the eldest should also be in a position to make informed judgments based on the situation at hand.
The ability and talents of siblings may also be used to analyze their personality. Everyone has an in-born special ability that in most cases id referred to as a talent. Many people have characterized kids who perform better in class activities as being intelligent as compared to those who fare well in co-curricular activities. However, these depend on individual perception and definition of intelligence. However, students who are too much into books are considered unsocial and they are therefore more vulnerable to developing depression. Those kids who spend their leisure time well are less susceptible to developing depression. Stewart (2001), points out that the less the age spacing then the more competition there is in the family. This may lead to conflicts as everyone tries to prove his or her might and position in the family. The larger the age spacing, the more the respect the kids have for each other. All these factors affect the behavioral patterns which in turns defines the vulnerability to develop depression. Behavioral patterns are also used to judge individual level of intelligence.
Birth order is pivotal in shaping our personality and behaviors. The individual level of intelligence and vulnerability to developing depression can also be traced back to birth order. The IQ scores of the siblings vary with the birth order ranking since they are all raised differently an actual birth order is different to psychological birth order although both have almost the same implications. The level of intelligence varies uniformly from the first to the youngest African American child while vulnerability to depression is dependent on various factors based on individual traits. The IQ scores of the siblings vary with the birth order ranking since they are all raised differently (Cheng et al. 2013). Both Stewart and Eckstein have done numerous researches although more extensive research ought to be done to find a complete solution to the mystery of whether birth has the considerable influence on personality. However, the relationship between siblings is very crucial while determining their mental well-being.
Parents have a major role to play in order to understand their children by creating an environment that is optimistic, safe, fit and inspiring to their children. They should therefore be keen to note and understand their children’s personality and characters. All their efforts should be geared towards helping their kids achieve full potential so that they can achieve their set goals and targets. If the parent notes that the first born child feels more accountable than their younger siblings, they should help lighten their load by proving to them that the minors in the family have a role to play in realizing their personal goals (Eckstein, 2000). However, this does not mean that they should not help, instead they should focus more on their personal lives and achievements. This is because the babysitting nature of the younger siblings in the family makes them less focused since they are assured that the elder siblings will always be there to assist. Little do they know that everyone has his or her destiny and that is all intertwined with individual efforts while still a kid. We should therefore minimally lean to the notion that birth in order defines our personality and instead work hard towards achieving our goals and objectives. Every kid should be allowed to define his or her destiny despite the role they have in the family as dictated by the family order.
Beer, J. M., & Horn, J. M. (2000). The influence of rearing order on personality development
within two adoption cohorts. Journal of Personality, 68(4), 789-819.
Cheng, C. J., Wang, W., Sung, Y., Wang, Y., Su, S., & Li, C. (2013). Effect modification by
parental education on the associations of birth order and gender with learning achievement in adolescents. Child: Care, Health & Development, 39(6), 894-902.
Dunkel, C. S., Harbke, C. R., & Papini, D. R. (2009). Direct and Indirect Effects of Birth Order
On Personality and Identity: Support for the Null Hypothesis. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 170(2), 159-175.
Eckstein, D., & Kaufman, J. A. (2012). The role of birth order in personality: An enduring
intellectual legacy of Alfred Adler. Journal of Individual Psychology, 68(1), 60-74.
Eckstein, D. (2000). Empirical studies are indicating significant birth-order-related personality
Differences. Journal of Individual Psychology, 56(4), 481.
Førland, T. E., Korsvik, T. R., & Christophersen, K. (2012). Brought up to rebel in the Sixties:
Birth order irrelevant, parental worldview decisive. Political Psychology, 33(6), 825-838. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9221.2012. 00908.x
Harris, J. R. (2000). Context-specific learning, personality, and birth order. Current directions
In psychological science (Wiley-Blackwell), 9(5), 174-177.
Schwär, G., & Mahony, A. (2012). Birth order position and prosocial tendencies. Journal of
Psychology in Africa (Elliott & Fitzpatrick, Inc.), 22(1), 56-60. doi:10.1080/14330237.2012.10874521
SKINNER, N. F., & FOX-FRANCOEUR, C. A. (2010). Personality implications of
Adaption-Innovation: v. birth order as a determinant of cognitive style. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 38(2), 237-240.
Stewart, A. E., Stewart, E. A., & Campbell, L. F. (2001). The Relationship of psychological
Birth order to the family atmosphere and personality. Journal of Individual Psychology, 57(4), 363.

Read more