Columbia exchange, French and Indian war, King Fillips’s war, Battle of new orleans, Mexican-and American war
HistoryThe Colombian exchange also known as the Grand exchange was the widely spread transfer of plants, human populations, culture, animals, technology and ideas. This happened between the Afro-Eurasian and American hemispheres during the 15th and 16th centuries. Communicable diseases were a byproduct at that time although it was unlikely to be unintentional. The contact between these two hemispheres influenced the development between new crops and a wide variety of livestock which in turn led to the growth of population. The traders from Europe carried home crops like maize, tomatoes and potatoes and these were very important crops in the continent by 18th century. Europeans brought peanut and manioc to West Africa and Asia where they grew well in soils that otherwise did not produce large harvests. A writer Alfred W. Crosby was the first person to use this term in his book ‘The Colombian Exchange’ and it was rapidly adopted by journalists and other historians and this made it so popular.
The exchange of livestock initially went through one route, that is, from Europe to the New World. This was because the Eurasians had domesticated many more animals like the pigs, mules, horses and donkeys. The introduction of horses to the Americas changed a life of many especially those in mountains. European exploration further led to the discovery of quinine, the first ever malaria treatment that was a disease that was suffered by most Europeans. A disease like small pox that was from animals was mostly in Africa and was spread to people in Eurasia. Crops like potatoes were only in South America before the trade. Similarly, tomatoes were only in Italy but they later found their way to Europe via the trade.
The French and Indian war was a worldwide seven years of war in North America. This war was fought between colonies of New France and British America where both sides were supported by military units from France and Great Britain which were the parent countries and also the Native American friends. When the war was starting the French North Americans had a population of about 60,000 settlers from Europe while the British North Americans were about 2 million. Due to the small number of the French they depended on the Indians for help. The war fought between the British colonies and the France frontiers from Nova Scotia to Virginia in the south. A small dispute of whom had control over the Monongahela and Allegheny Rivers triggered the war. The war is known by many names, for example in British America it was named as King George’s war since they liked naming wars after the sitting King. In Europe it was called the Seven Years’ war representing the events that took place in Europe from the time the war started in 1756 to when the peace treaty was signed in 1763.
In Canada both English speaking and French speaking Canadians refer to the North Americans and European wars as Seven years’ war. The French Canadians sometimes use a separate term War of Conquest. Most of the war between Britain and France ended as early as 1760 while in Europe the fight still continued. The war in North America came to a halt in 10th February 1763 when the Treaty of Paris was being signed. This was when British got Canada which was under France and Florida which was under Spain.
King Philip’s War had several other names like Metacom’s rebellion, Metacom’s war, First Indian war and Metacomet’s war. It was a conflict between the English colonialists, Native Americans who inhabit New England presently and the Native American friends in 1675 to 1678. The war is name after the leader of Native American; Metacomet’s who had taken the name King Philip to honor the friendship between his father and the original Mayflower Pilgrims. The war was mostly concentrated in the northern parts of the New England until a peace treaty called Treaty of Casco Bay was signed in April 1678. It was the greatest ever calamity to happen in the 17th century and it is considered as the deadliest as the European settled in North America. In a period of less than an year the colony’s economy was greatly ruined, about twelve town’s regions were destroyed, population was greatly reduce and one-tenth of the military men were already killed.
Diseases measles, spotted fever, small pox and typhoid were among the diseases that the Native Americans suffered. There were about 80,000 New England immigrants and they lived in 110 towns. Massachusetts colony had taken 64 of these towns and these include the Southwestern portion. Many of these towns had had built strong houses and had stockades surrounded these houses. Disease had reduced the Native Americans population to 10,000 by 1676. This war was fought in many fronts. In February 1676 there was the Lancaster raid that was an attack on Lancaster and these was led by Metacom with around 1500 men. An Iroquois tribe known as the New York Mohawks proceeded to fight the isolated groups of the Native Americans in Massachusetts. These are some of the many wars during the King Phillip’s war.
The battle of the New Orleans was not a just one time thing but it was a series of wars fought between December 1814 and January 1815. The American combatants were led by General Andrew Jackson and prevented the Royal marines, Royal Navy and British army which were led by Admiral Alexander Cochrane and General Edward Pakenham from taking control over New Orleans. The treaty of Ghent was signed on 24th December 1814 but the United States Government did not agree to it leading to continuity of war in Louisiana until February 1815. At the beginning the British combatants which were about 8,000 had taken control of the Gulf of Mexico and these limited the access of the Americans. Around 1200 soldiers on 14th December launched an attack on Jones’ force where 17 British sailors died and 77 wounded while 6 American died, 35 wounded and 86 captured.
The British planned an attack and the decided to sail on the Mississippi River but Fort St. Phillip could not let them pass so they launched an attack and the American forces which had support of the gunners from privateer ships were able to contain the attacks and later the British forces withdrew after 10 days of war. After the war the British council led by General Lambert organized another war at the Mobile Bay and they captured Fort Bowyer. The following day the British were already planning other attacks when they received the news that a peace treaty had already been signed. The Americans had been outnumbered and New Orleans was in danger. During a mass organized by the Very Rev William Dubourg, news arrived that the Americans had won.
The Mexican-American war was also known as Invasion of Mexico, United States-Mexican war, Mexican War was a war between the Mexico and the United States which took place between 1846 to 1847. This war was started by the United States and the Mexicans were defeated and it led to loss of about half of the national territory in the north. General Zachary Taylor was the commander of United States soldiers when a Mexican Calvary to attack them and a dozen of them were killed. Taylor later asked for reinforcements and they were able to defeat the Mexicans. United States president then talked to the Congress and told them about how the Mexicans came to their soil and shed blood. The following day the Congress declared war on Mexicans but they were not told of the declaration. Due to the small numbers of Mexicans about 75000, the United States forces led by Col. Stephen W. Kearney were able to conquer those lands.
Texas gained independence from Mexico in 1836 but the United States did not incorporate it into the union because of political interests of some people from the north that a slave state should not be incorporated. After President Polk was elected in 1844, annexation procedures took place quickly and Texas was re-annexed. President Polk also had his concentration on California which is currently known as United States Southwest. When his decision to purchase these lands was denied, he threatened to fight and moved his troops to Nueces River and Rio Grande. On 2nd February 1848 the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed. Texas was annexed and California was sold to the Unite Status.
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