China Abroad Students
[Student’s Full Name]
[Professor’s Full Name]
The Possible Implications of Chinese Students Studying Abroad
Within the past 50 years, cross-border mobility has become one of the most important parts of getting an adequate tertiary education. Students from developed countries, tend to see mobility as a way to attain a new cultural focus, and enrich their experiences. On the other hand, cross-border mobility from less developed not industrialized countries has dominated cross-border mobility. It is not a surprise that a country developing as fast as China is already among the largest sources of international students in the world (Li & Bray 792). In the same way, economic globalization, and the internationalization of the educational systems has helped to make the process easier. In the same way, the internationalization of education proposes a series of opportunities that Chinese students are eager to try. Also, being the prospective opportunities in foreign countries, bigger than those in their homeland, many Chinese grasp the opportunities and embark on international education. To most universities, having students from all the world represents an advantage as it shows them as cosmopolite, educational centers that attract minds from every part of the world. It is an interesting fact that China, a country whose primary source of income is exportation, is also exporting students.
In this essay, we aim to explore the trend of the Chinese enrollment colleges throughout the world, and how that trend might affect China. We shall use graphs and statistics to support our claim, and provide an extensive study.
THE INCREASE OF CHINESE STUDENTS GOING ABROAD
Concerning this issue, we have found two main reasons to this diaspora. The first is a social reason, and the second, completely economic. We shall address both, but we will focus the economic reasons behind the decision.
Social Reasons. After our investigation, we have found that one of the main social reasons that determine the mobility of the Chinese students is the gaokao. The gaokao is a standardized test that determines who the student is going to study in the future. Higher scores in the gaokao, mean greater possibilities, and better universities. Nevertheless, most students do not consider that the exam is too much of a hassle when they can choose to go to a foreign college (ICEF 1). In the same way, according to the Chinese Ministry of Education, 399,600 Chinese students went abroad in 2013 (ICEF 1). Also, from the 126,000 signed up for the gaokao; while only 72,736 did in 2013. It seems that most Chinese students who have the means to go abroad, choose to do it, instead of taking a test whose score tell them which careers or universities they can pick.
Economic Reasons. In the past 30 years, China has undergone a series of extensive economic reforms. We could say that the first and greatest was when the country became a member of the World Bank in 1980 (CSIS 1). From that moment, the country changed from a tightly controlled economy to a market economy, which allowed it to compete in the world’s markets and flow them with their cheap manufactured goods. The main reasons around China’s economic wellbeing rest on some pillars. For instance, most of the country’s debts are domestic, which means that they can handle them, as long as the country keeps its creditors and debtors from investing abroad, by offering greater incentives (The Economist 1). In the same way, the country has managed to increase its GDP by almost 40-percent in the past years. Although that growth is slowly stalling, it means that the country is trying to diversify its investments. One of those investments, albeit indirectly, is education. The country understands its competitive nature but value those who after graduating from a center abroad, choose to return to the country. Those returnees are often offered better jobs, and greater possibilities. However, many Chinese who had graduated in China, are against these measures. The country’s economic policies in the last 30 years have created a solid middle-class that is capable of sending their offspring abroad. As they consider that it is a better way for them to contribute to their families.
HOW CAN THE TREND AFFECT CHINA
According to the UNESCO, there are only in the United States 225,474 Chinese students (UNESCO 1), and for now the trend is not likely to change. As long as Chinese parents are convinced that it is a far better choice to send their offspring abroad, they will, they have the money to do it. In the same way, it is interesting how China is creating a sort of feedback with its main suitors. What we mean is that China is not only exporting goods; right now, it is also exporting human talent that might never return. That is a major concern to the Chinese government, given the fact that those who choose to emigrate are among the top prepared students. It is likely that the host country, whichever it is, decides to offer them a job, or any incentive to stay. To China, the difficulty of competing in those markets have proven a substantial difficulty to bring those graduates back. For instance, the country is not able to offer neither the same jobs nor the same wages those graduates could earn in their host countries. That creates a vacuum where the most prepared Chinese would not be in China. Instead, they will be scattered around the world. China is progressing, that is true, and there is no way to deny it. The thing is that instead of investing in educational reforms that might oxygen the educational system, the country is betting for economic measures that will prove short-term effective. China is an industrial giant, but we have found its soft spot. A country that does not invest in education, and is willing to let other countries steal their most capable citizens should rethink the way its policies are being used and enacted.
Charts and Graphics
Source: Unesco Global Flow of Tertiary-Level Students (2014)
“EIC Group China Partners Website – Key China Education Statistics for International Educators.” EIC Group China Partners Website. EIC Education,2011. Web. 3 July 2015. <http://partners.eic.org.cn/index.php/179-key-china-education-statistics-for-international-educators>.
“Global Flow of Tertiary-Level Students”. Global Flow of Tertiary-Level Students. UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 5 May 2014. Web. 3 July 2015. <http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/Pages/international-student-flow-viz.aspx>.
“Chinese Demand for Overseas Education Remains Strong despite Worries about Jobs.” ICEF Monitor. 26 June 2013. Web. 3 July 2015. <http://monitor.icef.com/2013/06/chinese-demand-for-overseas-education-remains-strong-despite-worries-about-jobs/>.
Lewin, J. “China Economic Reform Timeline.” China Economic Reform Timeline. CSIS. Web. 3 July 2015. <http://csis.org/blog/china-economic-reform-timeline>.
Li, M., and Bray, M. “Cross-border Flows of Students for Higher Education: Push–pull Factors and Motivations of Mainland Chinese Students in Hong Kong and Macau.” Higher Education 53 (2007): 791-818. Print.
“The Quiet Revolution.” The Economist. 18 Apr. 2015. Print.