Borderline personality disorder #2
Borderline Personality Disorder #2
Personality disorders are conditions that are considered to cause patterns of abnormal behavior in person. A person suffering from the personality disorder is recognized through distressing symptoms which are ranging. However, borderline personality is a common and most frequent personality disorder which is considered to be a serious mental health disease. It is characterized by the range of pervasive patterns such as instability effect of regulation, interpersonal relationship conflicts, impulse control and self-image(Lien et al,2004).. However, this research paper develops an insight of an epidemiology study that highlights the etiology, incidence or prevalence and the secondary symptoms of borderline personality disorder.
Research study shows that the causal factor of borderline personality disorder seems to be complex due to the interaction of several factors in various ways. However, these factors are regarded to involve genetic, neurochemical, neuroanatomical and psychological factors. On the contrary to the context, research study suggests that BPD is found and run in families. This study was facilitated by a research study of biological relatives of these people that are suffering from the particular personality disorder. The research conducted reported that borderline personality disorder is more prevalent among the families that are diagnosed compared to those families that are not diagnosed with the disorder. Moreover, a corresponding research was conducted by studying the concordance rates of the twin monozygotic and dizygotic pairs which were reported to be 35 % and 7% respectively. (Lien et al, 2004).
Furthermore, study shows that four factors have been identified by the multivariate genetic analysis which are claimed to resemble the traits of borderline personality disorder. These factors are emotional dysregulation, unstable cognitive functioning, and unstable sense of self and unstable interpersonal relationships (Lien et al, 2004). On the other hand, the neurochemical factor is considered to be vulnerable to people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder based on a research study. Therefore, it suggests that when the behaviors of aggression and impulsive which are characterized as the traits of a borderline personality disorder patient, are associated with the decrease in the levels of serotonin (“Etiology – What causes BPD? | Borderline Personality Disorder Clinician Resource Centre,”).
According to the research study, it reports that people diagnosed with BPD have anatomical and psychological brain differences with those people who are not diagnosed with BPD. This further illustrates that researchers have found these people diagnosed with BPD to possess a brain structure that is associated with fear, emotional response and arousal. Moreover, psychological factors are considered to be associated with adverse events and trauma during early lives. Childhood sexual abuse is the frequently reported case associated with borderline personality disorder. In addition, inexistence of secure attachments during early life is another cause of BPD whereby it results to emotional and interpersonal relationship instability.
According to an epidemiological study conducted on adults, the prevalence of BPD that was reported in Norway and USA ranges from 0.7% and 1.8% respectively. Furthermore, the disorder was reported to be common in women compared to men. The prevalence reported in a community-based sample of children and adolescents between the ages of 9-19 years and 11-21 years were 11% and 7.8% respectively. Similarly, it was reported to be more common in girls than boys (Lien et al, 2004).
Possible secondary symptoms
Substance abuse such as drugs and alcohol is considered to be a secondary symptom that may be as a result of the unstable relationship and post-traumatic events.
In conclusion, borderline personality disorder which is normally caused by genetic and psychological factors affects mostly women and girls. This is as a result of adversity in traumatic events during childhood period. Therefore, these events are considered as psychological factors. However, a patient diagnosed with borderline personality disorder can be treated by undergoing some therapy when early symptoms are detected. Furthermore, the symptoms normally include pervasive patterns of instability effect of regulation, interpersonal relationship conflicts, impulse control and self-image. The diagnosed patient suffers from anxiety, poor anger management, and internal self-conflict. Medication and psychiatrist counseling may have an impact when endorsed as the means of treatment to the diagnosed patient. Finally, psychological factors are viewed to be preventable for instance failure to secure attachment to a child during the early life. Securing an attachment with the child will enable the child to develop stable interpersonal relationships and build his/her confidence. Child sexual abuse may also be prevented if parents could secure a stable attachment with the child whereby it will give the child the confidence and freedom to open up to his/her parents. On the other hand, some of the causes of BPD are hardly preventable such genetic factors. When preventive measures are implemented, the rate of incidence and prevalence will drop in countries such as Norway and USA.
Etiology – What causes BPD? | Borderline Personality Disorder Clinician Resource Centre. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.treatingbpd.ca/BPD-Etiology-Causes.php
Lieb, K., Zanarini, M. C., Schmahl, C., Linehan, M. M., & Bohus, M. (2004). Borderline personality disorder. The Lancet, 364(9432), 453-461. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(04)16770-6