Metropolitan population density may impact transportation demand, for instance as articulated through regular day-to-day vehicle-kilometres covered in private automobiles. Consecutively, variations in demand for transportation impact aggregate passenger vehicle releases to which inhabitants are exposed. Population concentration can similarly impact the portion of aggregate emissions that are breathed in by the unprotected metropolitan population. This can lead to related health complications such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer. However, such automobile emissions can be solved through the use of particulate filters in the exhaust systems of vehicles.
There are more automobile emissions causing pollution in the ozone because the automobile industry has not developed proper exhaust filtration devices. Having a better filtration device would lessen pollution in the atmosphere, making the world more environmentally sustainable for life. The increase in population continues to play a significant role in the use of energy and the increase in the emission of greenhouse gas over the previous several years. The connection between populations and carbon releases appears to be apparent. An increase in the human population increases the demand for energy, and the more energy is used, the more the production of carbon. The rate of production can also be influenced by factors such as urbanization, family size, and aging.
Human activities primarily lead to the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2). Human activities in the United States was responsible for the production of approximately 82 percent of all carbon emissions in 2013 alone. The gas naturally exists in the atmosphere due to the carbon cycle of the earth. However, human actions are shifting the carbon cycle leading to an increase in CO2 in the atmosphere and impacting the natural processes that lead to the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. Even though CO2 is also emitted by several natural resources, emissions resulting from human activities account for the present concentration, especially as a result of the industrial revolution (Dupont, 67).
The burning of fossil fuels such as oil for the purpose of energy and transportation is the main human activity that results in the emission of CO2, even though particular industrial activities and shifts in the use of land also release CO2. The burning of fossil fuels, for instance, gasoline and diesel for the transportation of people and goods is the second biggest source of CO2 releases, accounting for nearly 30 percent of CO2 releases and 25 percent of aggregate greenhouse gas discharges in the United States in 2013. This classification comprises means of transportation such as highway automobiles, air travel, marine carriage, as well as rail.
Emissions and Trends
There was an increase in the emissions of CO2 in the U.S. alone by approximately 7 percent between 1990 and 2013. Considering that the burning of fossil fuels is the leading emitter of CO2 in the nation, shifts in releases from the combustion of fossil fuels have traditionally been the main element influencing trends of emissions in the U.S. Such a change are affected by several long-standing and temporary factors, comprising shifting behaviour, shifting energy pricing policies, economic development, among others. Over the previous two decades, the rise in the releases of CO2 paralleled rising uses of energy by a growing economy and population. The 7 percent increase also includes transportation emissions, resulting mainly from a rise in the distance covered by motor vehicles. Brian O’Neil and other colleagues assessed the implications of the changes in demographic for worldwide emissions. The team advanced several scenarios considering economic development, energy use, and releases relying on data obtained from 34 nations, a representation of 60 percent of the planet’s population, in addition to an energy-economic development model (Schneider and Michael, 144).
The researchers demonstrate that the shifts in the composition of the population and size play a significant role in the releases, in particular, areas. For instance, they approximate that urbanization can increase estimated emissions by over 25 percent in certain regions in emerging nations. A controlled increase in the population can lead to a reduction in the emissions by between 16 and 29 percent, and will be required for the prevention of harmful climate alteration by 2050. The consequence of the reduced growth of the population towards the conclusion of the century could be even higher, representing reductions of between 37 percent and 41 percent in carbon releases. In consideration of such substantial effect of demographics on emissions, the researchers concluded that family planning strategies would play a significant role in stopping climate change.
The Detrimental Consequences of Automobile Emissions
Air Pollution and Human HealthIt currently a common belief among healthcare specialist that the world is faced with an epidemic of diseases that are worsened by pollution of the atmosphere. Examples of such diseases are cardiovascular disease, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer of the lungs, and diabetes. The American Academy of Paediatrics has observed that there are such high levels of ozone and particulate matter in several parts of the world, a situation that exposes children to health complications. In the US only, nearly 11 million children stay in regions that surpass federal air quality standards in most states; another 2.8 million progenies stay in nations in which the levels of CO2 are surpassed (State and Federal Standards for Mobile Source Emissions, 288).
Asthmatics are adversely affected by chemicals found in automobile emissions, which could complicate lung function and facilitate allergic response and constriction of the airway. The emissions of all vehicles contain fine particles infiltrate deeply in the lungs and affect the circulatory system, destroying cells and triggering respiratory challenges. Asthmatics are affected even by temporary exposure to automobile emissions, and young ones are especially reactive to emissions. Approximately 10 percent of the children in Connecticut have asthma and according to one research, children are 40 percent are more probable to be attacked on high outdoor contamination days.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Automobile emissions are especially dangerous to persons suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, for instance, chronic bronchitis. Researchers have established a positive relationship between increased ozone levels and a wide variety of serious repercussions on the lungs, and many researchers have demonstrated heightened the risk of infections from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease connected with heightened ozone levels. There is a positive association between the levels of PM10 and sickness in persons suffering from COPD. Such connections were observed in Philadelphia, where automobile emissions contribute significantly as a source of the particles. The higher the concentration of the fine particles, the higher the admission rates for COPD patients (Glazer and Lawrence, 89).
An increase in the concentrations of particulate and gaseous emissions leads to a direct increase in mortality and hospital admissions for such illnesses as myocardial infarction, congestive cardiac failure and cardiac arrhythmia. An increase in particles in the atmosphere causes cardiovascular disease patients to experience more serious indications, rates of admission to hospitals, and death. An exposure to pollutions resulting from heavy traffic increases chances of suffering from a heart attack, similar to those living next to air-polluted roads.
Automobiles release several carcinogenic substances such as benzene, formaldehyde, as well as 1,3-butadiene. EPA approximates that automobile emissions are responsible for nearly half of all incidences of cancer credited to open air pollution.
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) decrease diesel releases by filtering. The innovation is very effective in regulating diesel emissions and has been established to lessen diesel particulate matter by more than 90%. DPF can be classified into numerous categorizations: passive, active, or flow-through.
Passive DPFs utilise a catalytic substance that permits the stuck PM to be combusted or dissolved at a lesser heat. For the technology to be effective, the engine needs are functioned in a way that the tailpipe conserves a pre-set heat for a particular duration. Numerous passive DPFs have been certified for on-road uses. Up till now no DPFs have been certified for transferrable engines. The duty series for apparatus need to be in a way that the vehicle exhaust temperature and its interval are more than the manufacturer’s stipulations. In case, they are lower the DPF’s builder’s stipulations, smoke collects in the sieve, snowballing exhaust backpressure causing engine failure. All engines need to undergo testing to ascertain whether their duty cycle would be accommodative of a passive DPF (Zereini and Friedrich, 198).
The working of an active DPF is similar to that of a passive DPF, the only dissimilarity being that an active DPF does not rely on engine heat to trigger the oxidation of the trapped PM. It works best in reduced exhaust temperatures or engines that emit high levels of PM. A majority of usual methods apply electrical rejuvenation by transiting an electrical current across the filter, introducing fuel to offer extra heat to react with the trapped PM, or using a fuel-borne substance or other chemicals to begin regeneration.
Flow through filter (FTF) innovation is a comparatively new method for decreasing engine releases. Different from a DPF, where only fumes can go past the substrate, the FTF is not designed to amass physicallyamass PM. In its place, exhaust moves through a substance with a high concentration of intermittent flow networks, therefore causing turbulent flow settings. The FTFs, with its tempestuous flow, permit the exhaust fumes to have more interaction with the reactive surface and extended residence periods. Any elements that are not reacted with the FTF move out with the remaining exhaust and do not collect (Callan, Callan-Thomas, and Janet, 178).
In conclusion, there are more automobile emissions causing pollution in the ozone because the automobile industry has not developed proper exhaust filtration devices. Having a better filtration device would lessen pollution in the atmosphere, making the world more environmentally sustainable for life. However through technological advancements, it is now possible to significantly reduce the levels of automobile emissions through the use of particulate filters that ensure the emissions from vehicles, especially those powered by diesel engines, are safe and does not pose any real threats to the environment. An increase in population has led to an increase in the ownership of vehicles across the world that has subsequently increased the levels of emissions of carbon to the environment, a process that is harmful to the environment and puts the health of people living near heavy traffic areas to suffer from related complications. Such complications include asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.Work Cited:
Callan, Scott J, Callan-Thomas, and Janet M. Thomas. Environmental Economics & Management: Theory, Policy, and Applications. Mason, Ohio [u.a.: Thomson/South-Western, 2007. Print.
Dupont, André. An American Solution for Reducing Carbon Emissions, Averting Global Warming, Creating Green Energy and Sustainable Employment. Falls Church, VA: Dupont Group, 2009. Print.
Glazer, Amihai, and Lawrence S. Rothenberg. Why Government Succeeds and Why It Fails. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2001. Internet resource.
Schneider, Stephen H, and Michael D. Mastrandrea. Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.
State and Federal Standards for Mobile Source Emissions. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press, 2006. Internet resource.
Zereini, Fathi, and Friedrich Alt. Anthropogenic Platinum-Group Element Emissions: Their Impact on Man and Environment. Berlin: Springer, 2000. Internet resource.