Article Appraisal: Assignment
Answer 1: The ethical principles described in the Belmont Report which were violated in the study included lack of respect for people (since individuals with diminished autonomy like the slaves were not entitled to protection), lack of Beneficence (the individuals portrayed in the studies were not protected against harm rather they were harmed) and lack of justice (treatments were often extended to Whites and African-American population or Blacks were denied appropriate treatment for the purpose of experimentation).
Answer 2: The violation of ethical principles could have been prevented by seeking informed consent from the patients or their families for being included in a clinical trial, the patients and their families should be transparently and comprehensively briefed about the pros or cons in participating in such experimentation or trial, the benefits and risks of including a patient should be evaluated before including an individual in a clinical trial and finally, every patient should be fairly treated for the intervention protocol. This means individuals belonging to low socio-economic status or racially deprived must get equal opportunity for being selected in an experimental study.
Answer 3: The subjects who were included in the experimental trials were certainly vulnerable. For instance, in Dr. James Sim’s experimentation, her slave Anarcha was repeatedly used for experimentation in spite of her health conditions. She was suffering from the vaginal infection a…
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