APA style essay Question
Cognitive and Age-Related Disorders
Cognitive and Age-Related Disorders
Q.1 Symptoms of Childhood Anxiety Disorders
There are some childhood anxiety disorders. Some of these disorders include panic disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and Selective mutism disorder among many others (Beidel & Alfano, 2011). Panic disorder in children can be diagnosed if a child experiences at least two unexpected anxiety attacks. It normally occurs suddenly and results from no apparent reason. It is immediately followed by one month of living in worry over another attack, and losing control (Beidel & Alfano, 2011).
Research has shown that many young children suffer from separation anxiety disorder. Children normally feel anxiety when a parent or a guardian gets out of the room or just disappeared out of sight (Mckay & Storch, 2011). Children can be easily distracted by these kinds of feelings. For instance, it is common for young children between the age of one year to five years to cry during the first day when left at pre-school or day care center. The child will eventually stop after getting used to the new environment. Children tend to experience excessive anxiety while they are far away from home or when their parents are away from them. They experience homesickness and misery for being far away from their loved ones. Other symptoms associated with separation anxiety disorder include a child demanding for a companion during bedtime, refusing to attend school or sleepover or a camp (Beidel & Alfano, 2011).
Selective mutism disorder usually affects young children, and they lead a normal way of life. Mutism disorder is normally characterized by failure to speak on a special occasions or situations. It associated with symptoms such as excessive shyness, fear of social embarrassment, and withdrawal (Beidel & Alfano, 2011).
Q.2 Two Treatments Proposed for Children with ADHD
The proposed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) treatment in children may entail ADHD medications and Behavior therapy (Rickel & Brown, 2007).
Medication treatment may include the use of drugs such as methylphenidate hydrochloride and other stimulants that can help to regulate and suppress impulsive behavior among the children. Using medication will squelch hyperactivity; improve concentration and social interaction of people with ADHD. Also, the use of proper medications will help the school going children to perform much better in school. The medications can also be utilized to treat children suffering from co-existing disorders to control destructive behaviors. When used with the right prescriptions, they are safe and have no major side effects. However, children or any other person using these medications should be monitored for any weight changes. Weight changes may be experienced after long usage of these drugs. Continuous use of this medication cannot be considered addictive especially in young children. However, teenagers and adults should be closely monitored for any misuse (Rickel & Brown, 2007).
Studies have shown that using medication alone will not be effective, and these have created a need for behavioral therapy. Behavioral therapy includes interventions such as behavioral modification and parent training. The main aim is to teach teachers and parents methods on how to handle people with ADHD-related problems. Using these approach teachers and parents learn better ways on how to reward a child for any positive behavior and discourage negative behaviors. Also, research has shown that behavior modification can be effective for young children with oppositional problems. However, behavior therapy has shortcomings in that it can be used alone to treat ADHD (Rickel & Brown, 2007).
The psychotic disorder is a brief mental disorder often related to as time limited schizophrenia. It is usually treated within a period of one month, and individual returns to normalcy. Its symptoms include disorganized speech, catatonic behavior, and hallucinations (Mckay & Storch, 2011).
Later in life, management of psychotic behavior involves using interventions that can be improved by using medications. Daily activities will decrease as long-term care and hospitalization are needed.Young people diagnosed with psychotic disorder experience symptoms such as anxiety, sleep disorders, and they feel socially isolated.
Amnestic disorder or Amnesia refers to a psychological disorder that disrupts the memory of an individual. People suffering from Amnesia can lose memories and lack the ability to create new memories. Symptoms associated with this disorder include loss of memory, difficulty in recall and disorientation (Mckay & Storch, 2011). Later in life older people can recover slowly, and memories experienced before the disorder can be recalled. The disorder can be treated using Thiamin. Young people, on the other hand, can recover slowly if treated, and memories experienced before the disorder can be recovered. Individuals are recommended to maintain a healthy lifestyle.
Q.4 Dementia Treatment Strategy
Behavioral therapy can be used to treat Dementia. Using behavioral therapy strategy, it tries to explore the reasons why an individual is experiencing a difficult behavior. Many strategies can be utilized to change behavior. For instance, a person diagnosed with Dementia disorder might be having a wandering history out of their home simply because of they feel restless. The best way to correct the above behavior is to encourage them to participate regularly in physical exercise as this will help to reduce restlessness (Mckay & Storch, 2011).
Behavioral therapy can be utilized to treat several of behavior related complications associated with Dementia such as aggression, depression and delusional thinking. Behavioral therapy in most occasions is administered by a trained close family member or a friend and monitored by a healthcare professional (Beidel & Alfano, 2011).
Beidel, D. C., & Alfano, C. A. (2011). child anxiety diorders: a guide to research and treatment. New York: Roultedge.
Mckay, D., & Storch, E. A. (2011). Handbook of child and adolescent anxiety disorders. New York: Springer.
Rickel, A. U., & Brown, R. T. (2007). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults. Toronto: Hogrefe & Huber.
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