Anthropology is the study of humans in the past and the present. Anthropology has two sub-divisions, which are cultural anthropology and biological anthropology. Cultural anthropology delineates the working of societies around the world and biological anthropology describes the long-term development of the human organism. Anthropology is however, a Greek word understood to mean humanity or human being. It has been in use since the 17th century. Anthropology unsheathes and builds upon knowledge from the social and biological sciences humanity, sciences, and physical sciences to comprehend the complex cultures. However, application of knowledge to the solution of human is a major concern to the anthropologist.
Cultural anthropology is the study of cultural dissimilarity among human beings compared to social anthropology, which apprehend cultural variation as a subcategory of the anthropology persistent. The concepts of culture in anthropology demonstrate partly a reaction against western treaties based on an opposition between culture and nature. Therefore, anthropologists have squabbled that culture is human nature and everyone has a magnitude to categorize experience, cipher classification, and teach others. Humans amass culture through learning and socializing (Fleck, G. (2008). Therefore, people living in different places or circumstances enroot different cultures. People can however adapt to their environment in non-genetic ways therefore possessing different cultures. The cultural anthropology occurred within the ambience of the 19th century where cultural questions were old-fashioned and which were civilized occupied the minds of many people.
According to Chomsky, children are born with an inherited ability to learn any human language since some linguistic structures that they use precisely and accurately are however noted to be imprint on their mind. He further believes that every child has a language acquisition device that encodes major principles of language and structure grammatically in to the child’s mind. Children therefore have to learn of new vocabularies and apply the syntactic structures to be able to form sentences. A child cannot learn language through imitation alone because the language that is in use around them is highly irregular since the adult language is sometimes broken up or even ungrammatical. Hues theory however applies to all languages as they all include nouns, verbs, vowels, and consonants (Fleck, G. (2008). Nonetheless, children appear to be ‘hard-wired’ to gain grammar. However all children despite their intellectual ability become more fluent in their languages within five to six years.
However, a study by skinner argued that children learn language based on the behaviors and principles by associating words with meanings. Seemingly, correct utterances are reinforced positively when the child is aware of the value of communicative of words and phrases. Chomsky on the other hand argued that children would never acquire enough skills needed to process an infinite number of sentences if the language acquisition process is dependent on language input only. He therefore proposed the theory of universal grammar, which was an idea of innate, biological grammatical categories (Chomsky S. S. (2006). These included noun category, verb category that facilitated the entire language development in children and language processing in adults. Universal grammar is however, a considerable measure to contain all the grammatical information needed to combine these categories hence the child’s task is to learn of their words language. Children are therefore able to combine a noun and a verb in to meaningful and correct phrases.
There are three theories of child language acquisition, which include imitation theory, reinforcement theory, and active construction also known as grammar theory. On imitation theory, children get to hear speech around them and copy it. Nonetheless, when a child who is brought up in an English-speaking environment they acquire good and well-spoken English compared to those who are not raised in an English-speaking environment. Reinforcement theory is the way in which adults tutor their children when using language by praising and correcting the children. However, parents sometimes correct the truth of the sentence rather than the formation of the sentence (Chomsky S. S. (2006). Grammar theory the rules are however a hypothesis by the linguistics input and as children continuously receive language input their grammar becomes more of adult grammar and this leads to the fact that children can create novel sentences unlike those that are heard from the adults.
Animal languages are the forms of non-human communication that however indicate the similarities to human language. This language is hard enough for it to be referred to as a form of language. Human-animal communication is the communication that is observed between humans and animals from different forms such as non-verbal and vocals to the potential use of a more complex language. This form of communication has existed in culture for many decades. Humans can imitate some modes of communication in animals such as the chimpanzees. This finding however confirmed that not only the non-human species can maintain unique cultural traditions but also it further showed that they could pass their mode of tradition to one population to another. The chimpanzees and apes use the non-verbal mode of communication in sending wordless messages and receiving. It can however be communicated by gestures or touch, posture or body language, or even eye contact (Chomsky S. S. (2006). Humans and some primates share some nonverbal communications. This includes holding hand and kissing. This however shows that they also share a common ancestry. Both the humans and the chimpanzees or apes share the call system, which include sending messages by laughing, sobbing, groaning, screaming, sighing, and even crying with pain. These call systems have co-evolved alone with the symbolic language. This however may be why humans integrate calls and symbolic language in to their speech.
Parental interactions can however have a largely positive or negative effect on the child development. Parents whom ignore interactions with their children may hinder their positive development. Parents are supposed to interact with their children and teach them on various issues including their language skills by playing and teaching their kids through performing various types of hands on games and activities that can have a positive impact on the child.
During infancy (Liégeois, J.-P, 2012) until around six months, babies make a lot of noise by squalling, squeaking, and even yelling. From about six months and above they start babbling and they practice their vowels. However, the infants can perceive more than they can pronounce. They may not be able to utter certain word but they cannot put up with one who is mispronouncing them. Parents play a huge role in forming their child’s language because the children need to learn a specific language from around them. Mothers adjust their speech to fit the child’s level, this is present in every culture on the planet, and it has some characteristics. To nature, children’s language parents are advised to speak to their children and engage in conversations with them. The more the children get to speak with their parents the more their vocabularies improve and they get to learn more vocabularies.
The purpose of spoken language is to communicate. Spoken language is one of the several means of languages employed by infants to communicate. At first infants and small babies, do not understand the meaning of words and therefore use gestures to communicate, tone of voice and nonverbal communications. However, children need to be educated to improve their form of communication to reduce their reliance to non-verbal communication and to strengthen their ability to communicate using words. Hence, become literate. At birth infants tend to be attracted to human sound or voice especially their mother’s voice on the other hand adults find the crying of an infant to be the most annoying sound and the most disturbing of all sounds. To nurture one’s child language is to read them, however much they may not understand one is required to be patient with their children and give them time to understand, and with time the children will start showing participation (Liégeois, J.-P, 2012). This is a means of letting the child appreciate what books have to offer and on the other hand this is also referred to as ‘quality time’ since it nurtures a sense of closeness between the child and the parent. Later on, the books might take on a value of their own as a tool to nurture literacy and thinking skills.
However, nurturing activities should be fun, exciting, and able to create bonds between parents and the children. The parents should show their children that the more they try the more they learn and become successfully and most importantly, they will learn that the adults that they love that they love them back. This support from the family sets trust and open communication and a better environment for the children to learn and improve their communication skills and language children seem to acquire language at a speed adults cannot match. By the age of three children are able to communicate with adults and even their peers this shows that the child is a linguistic him/herself since the child is able to construct their own sentences and grammar. Each child goes through different stages before they can actually start talking and the acquisition of language immediately starts when the child is born. From the stage of crying to the stage of babbling then the child is able to show the ability of speech sounds then to the one-word utterances. The child’s vocabulary does not grow rapidly but it starts growing at the age of two words utterances and the structure of a sentence appears. At a certain stage, the child starts to pronounce full sentences and the vocabulary grows to a thousand including nouns and verbs, pronouns and adjectives. At this age, children have internalized a working system of the proper plurals and adjectives and proper grammar to enable them to communicate with their parents and peers. Children therefore learn their language as a mental organ and most children have mastered their form of communication as they grow up.
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Fleck, G. (2008). Come closer: Inclusion and exclusion of Roma in present-day Romanian society. Bucharest: Human Dynamics.
Liégeois, J.-P., & Council of Europe. (2012). Council of Europe and Roma: 40 years of action.
Chomsky S. S. (2006). The world of nomads. New Delhi: Lotus Press.