Answer the following questions Unit 4DB
Medical Sciences Unit 4DB
Muscles are tissues made of fibers and cells found all over the body, whose contraction and relaxation leads to movement. Muscles in the human body are categorized based on their location and functions. There are three types that include cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscles. All muscles create a muscular system used to maintain posture, movement, support and coordination. In the human body skeletal muscles makes up 50% of human weight; there are over 500 skeletal muscles in the human body (SEER…, nd). Cardiac muscles are found on the walls of the heart to assist in pumping of the blood. Smooth muscles are found on the walls of blood vessels and respiratory system.
Lower extremity muscles are utilized during standing and walking
Lower extremity muscles are located in the thigh, the leg, the ankle, and the foot. The following are the muscles found in these regions and are used for standing and walking. They are majorly skeletal muscles; quadriceps (Vastus medialis muscle, rectus femoris muscle, and vastus lateralis muscle) and hamstrings are located in the front and behind the thigh respectively. Their movements lead to sitting and standing, they allow one to flex and lift the body (SEER…, nd). Tibialis anterior dorsiflexes the foot, and soleus and gastrocnemius, are also used during standing, and both plantar flex the foot.The thigh is flexed by iliopsoas is an anterior muscle that flexes the thigh for movement.
Changes occurring in the muscular system as a person enter late adulthood
With aging the muscles exhibit structural and functional changes. The changes start when a person starts to live their fourth decade. There is reduced synthesis of proteins like myosin and actin that makes up the muscular cells, together with the mitochondrial cells that are required for the production of energy required for muscle movements. Sarcopenia is a major change that comes as a result of aging, due to changes in functions of neurons and muscle structure (SEER…, nd). There is decreased the volume of fibers in the muscles that compromise their functions in terms of functions. With weak muscles, it makes using the lower extremity muscles a problem and additional support is the muscles of the arms and the back.
Muscle changes in older adults and falls risk
Older adults as illustrated above have lost fibers and mass in their muscles, which renders their muscles weak. With weak muscles on the thighs and legs and foot, and older adult can barely support their weight and stand or move effectively. With such conditions, an older adult is at a risk of falling in their efforts to stand or move.
Ways to prevent muscle loss or maintain muscular strength as people age
Muscles become weak when they lose their mass and fiber make up. To maintain the strength in older adults, a weight lifting regimen is a therapeutic recommendation. Regular exercising like jogging or running keeps the muscles active which enables their regeneration. Diet is a factor that promotes muscle strengths for instance eggs whose content help in muscle building and repairing tissues of muscles.
In conclusion muscles can never be effective if they are not attached to the structure they supposed to support. For instance, skeletal muscles are attached to the skeleton and their coordination brings about movement. The brain is another organ that promotes the coordination and ensure that that the muscle and the structures they support movement in harmony (SEER…, nd). With neural breakdown, the coordination gets poor, and the movement is impaired
SEER Training Modules. (n.d.). Retrieved September 7, 2015, from http://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/muscular/groups/lower.html