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Annotated bibliography: teen pregnancy
Student’s name
Teen pregnancy is a universal concern and affects many nations. The largest proportion of teen pregnancy is contributed by girls of age between 15-19 years. By definition, teen pregnancy is pregnancy period by girls under the age of 20 years by the time the pregnancy ends (Kristen, 2013). Many teenagers do not realize they are pregnant until they have missed their period over a long time. On consultation, they are confronted with the desperate option of abortion or keeping the pregnancy that risks their life. They are at a risk since their body have not developed fully to carry a baby. Some teenagers manage to keep and deliver babies normally, but complications arise which threatens their life. They may suffer anemia that leads to immune compromised status. Opportunistic diseases like respiratory diseases may kill them leaving a hopeless baby who remains at risk of dying too (Kristen, 2013). The problem is not only experienced in the U.S.A but across the world with increased promiscuity. Latest research have shifted the focus to girls from minority sexual orientation groups, why they are victims as swell. They initiate early sexual activities, which lead to more experimentation with other methods that include normal sex. Without the use of contraceptives, they are at risk of conceiving. Various stakeholders are required to join hands in addressing the problem (Weiss, 2012). Studies have been conducted to establish the main causes of adolescent pregnancy and solution have been linked to the current declining number of such cases. This research study will help to strengthen the effort by previous researchers on this topic in the quest to eradicate the problem.
Problem statement
The research on this topic is important for it is a global public health concern. Most teenage girls have been forced to drop out of school to care for their child. Inexperienced teenage mother has poor skills to care for infants, and may end up with lifetime health complications. Teen pregnancy is among the main causes making teenage girls procure dangerous and illegal abortion (Charlton et al, 2015). Many cases of adolescent girl’s mortality in the process of abortion have been heard several times. This makes the research on this topic important to eradicate the problem.
The purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to establish causes of escalating cases of teen pregnancy and mitigation procedure to keep it under control. This is an important segment of study since it will shade light on causes and approaches applied in different regions to address the issue. The purpose could be achieved by taking surveys in various communities and healthcare facilities to identify the cause of the problem. Conducting a retrospective study on previous records on the topic could help come up with some of the causes and measures that have been applied to the case.
Research questions and hypothesis
The following questions were used to address the purpose of the study
From the surveys of the community members and healthcare facilities, how frequent are teen pregnancy cases reported in a period of one month?
From the retrospective study on health records, how can the teen pregnancy trend in previous years compare with teen pregnancy bases on the current statistic?
What are the challenges faced by the adolescent health experts in their efforts to manage the problem?
Is the government dedicated to help eradicate the public health challenge by supporting initiatives against the problem?
The hypothesis for this research is; the society perpetrates teen pregnancy and it’s the main tool for fighting the problem.
Method of study
For the research to realize its goal, method of study was organized in the following structure.
Research design
The research will use surveys on some persons within the community, a proportion of parents and adolescent girls. The survey will help gather the opinion on where the gaps exist for appropriate action. The research will also conduct a retrospective study to establish trends in the past and help predict trends in the future. The study on the trends will help identify mechanisms that were implemented and worked and those that have failed to be replaced with better ones.
Sampling method to be used will be random sampling of subjects from adolescent age 13 to 19 years and mothers or young women below age 35 year. 20% of the total number of the adolescent in the region of study will be used to represent the adolescent population. 10 % of women age 35 and below will be used to represent the views of mothers or young women.
Instruments of study
A survey and a retrospective study will be used in the collection for required data as explained below.
Survey, this tool will be used to gather information on which gaps they experience that contributes to teen pregnancy. Mature women of age 35 years and below will give their opinion that will be compared to the one from adolescents before making a conclusion. The survey will also be cared among the healthcare providers in the department dealing with adolescent’s health. Their opinion is expected to take a professional and policy angle. The providers opinion will help establish which group including the government that has failed in performing their role.
The retrospective study, the study will be conducted on the previous records of facilities to reveal the trends and patterns, which the problem have been taking. The study is expected to surface more insight on the mechanism that have brought a difference and the one that has failed and the reasons.
Data collection and data analysis
The collection of data will include a team of students who will be reimbursed per day after meeting the set standards for data collection. Each team member will be issued with a letter of consent, to enhance their authority in the field. Once the data have been collected, Excel spreadsheet and SPSS tools will be used in the data analysis. The analysis will take into bar graphs, for trends and pies charts for proportions among other pictorial depiction.
Ethical concerns
To ensure that human rights have been observed, the letter of consent will accompany the request for their permission to share the information. The respondents will not be assumed to be experimental subjects, but as respondents in a study. They will be informed of the target of the study and asked to offer their response to a free will. The information that will be shared voluntarily from the respondents will be confidential and will be used only for designed purpose by designated persons.
Annotated bibliography
Weiss, J. (2012). Who will listen? Rural teen pregnancy reflection. The Journal of Nurse Practitioners. 8(10), 804-809. Retrieved from source introduces a research that was conducted in American rural regions, to establish the cause of high teen pregnancy prevalence in this regions. It was noted that nurses were frustrated in their effort to discourage teen pregnancy since the local community had cultures that prohibited open talks about sex. The culture made it impossible to sensitize by sharing information with parents and teenagers concerning safe sex and any mechanism to prevent teen pregnancy cases from escalating. It was concluded that by eradicating the outdated culture and belief that talking about sex and other related topics was wrong, there could be no change. The resource is a peer-reviewed article that makes it content authentic for use. It is a research conducted by nurses, who deal with reproductive issues for teenagers which makes it content reliable for any scholarly activities. The choice for this resource was because it covered the topic I am focusing and have more knowledge from studies conducted in different regions. The resource can be used as a base for fresh research or a supplementary material for an ongoing research activity.
Kristen, A.P. (2013).Teen pregnancy prevention: A new paradigm. Southern Medical Journal.106 (9).493-494
The resource discusses various mechanisms that can be applied to end the challenge of teen pregnancy. In America, there has been a remarkable improvement in the management of teen pregnancy. But still it remains a significant public health issue, which consumes a lot of tax payer’s money in the management. Among the proposed control measure measures; Abstinence was considered as the most useful. Community mobilization, sensitization of teenagers and their parents, public education and improving school curriculum to address the issue comprehensively were options to be considered. The source is a peer reviewed article and contains a lot of reliable statistics used in decision making by the government. The authors are health care research experts, and this makes their publication a scholarly source. The source addresses the topic of interest, and this makes it a suitable choice for the task at hand. The source can be used by other people with similar or related research interest. It is a recent research conducted and hence addresses the topic in its current status.
Charlton, B. M., Rosario, M., Roberts, A. L., Katz-Wise, S. L., Spiegelman, D., & Austin, S. B. (2015). 117. Teen Pregnancy Risk Factors Among Girls and Young Women of Diverse Sexual Orientations. Journal of Adolescent Health,56(2), S61-S62.
This source documents a research study over factors that puts girls of different sexual orientation at the risk of teen pregnancy. The study suggests that females of minority sexual orientation like lesbians are at risk due to factors like an early initiation of sexual activities. The sexual minority group was realized to be conducting frequent sexual contacts that were considered as a risk factor. The resource is a contained in the online journal for adolescent health. The Journal is periodical that is meant to improve the reproductive health of the youth. It is a scholarly article and can be used for research purposes in this topic. It is a peer-reviewed article, and this makes it authentic to be utilized in this research paper. It content can be applied to various research activities and by researchers interested in the matters affecting adolescent health. The resource is also unique since its addresses teen pregnancy from people of different sexual orientation which makes it more interesting how their status contributes. Conventionally we expect heterosexuals to be persons plagued by the matter.
Charlton, B. M., Rosario, M., Roberts, A. L., Katz-Wise, S. L., Spiegelman, D., & Austin, S. B. (2015). 117. Teen Pregnancy Risk Factors Among Girls and Young Women of Diverse Sexual Orientations. Journal of Adolescent Health,56(2), S61-S62.
Kristen, A.P. (2013).Teen pregnancy prevention: A new paradigm. Southern Medical Journal.106 (9).493-494
Weiss, J. (2012). Who will listen? Rural teen pregnancy reflection. The Journal of Nurse Practitioners. 8(10), 804-809. Retrieved from

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