Acquired phototrophy in Dinophysis – review
Acquired Phototrophy in Dinophysis – review
The use of chloroplasts that come from prey that is ingested, which can also be called acquired phototrophy comes from ciliates and dinoflagellates. The known examples of such an occurrence are from different groups like the dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis and ciliate genus Mesodinium. They are both significant and have been in distribution all over the world. In Dinophysis, all the available contents of ciliate are usually taken out except the chloroplasts that are retained in the prey that is ingested. The importance and interesting part of this study are that it provide varied information that pertain to Dinophysis and its relation to many other species in the aquatic environment when different conditions are applied.
There are some chloroplast genes that are in-house which can be found in the Dinophysis nucleus, and there are various suggestions that this can take shape for photoacclimation (Wisecaver 366). All of these genera can take part in nutrients that may include NO3, and this is a clear indication that all the process that go far after photosynthesis have been accomplished. M Rubrum can also be seen as depending on other prey species that are found in Geminigera (Wisecaver 366). Until now M rubrum is found to depend fully on species that have Plagioselmis and Dinophysis has been maintained under M rubrum as a component of food (Béjà 786). There are also other ciliates that can be ingested during this whole process. M rub rum and Dinophysis are known to be obligate mixotrophs, and this fully depends on the light and prey which is made use of during growth. M rubrum usually depends on 1-2% of their carbon while Dinophysis often has a desire to have half of the total carbon produced for purposes of ingestion and other functions (Caroppo 183). This is done to ensure maximum growth to both species. Mesodim and Dinophysis can stay for many months without any intake of food while staying in the light.
There have been various discussions about the plastids but in the Dinophysis there is a vital comparison between the pigments in three different systems of culture (Wang 7). The systems include the cryptophytes, Dinosphysis, and the Mesodinium. Reporting of the three significant culture systems has not been recorded nor reported by researchers as required. As the study was done and for species of Dinophysis were observed. The observed were D. tripos, D. Acuminata, and D. Acuta. It was later discovered that Teleaulax and Mesodinium, Dinophysis had 59-221 higher folds per cell, and this was different from the T. amphioxea which had less. The difference was relevant and valid because of the conditions of light that both were put under (Vale 1599). The difference in light made it possible for the different recordings of cells to be encountered. The reason for the different results was later recorded and indicated as increased amounts of chloroplasts which were seen compared to those that were synthesized and appreciated by the new pigments which were provided during the experiment.
The species of Dinophysis photosynthetic species have different plastids which came from the cryptophycean (Bryant 488). There, however, has been a great concern over the nature of both species as to whether they are permanent or kleptoplastids. Different protists have in the past had photosynthetic space by which endosymbiosis are produced with chloroplasts. It is also vital to note that the nature of such occurrence is never understood by researchers. According to them, when dealing with Dinophysis there are high chances of the kleptoplasty to remain in the mesodinium rubrum which is the most likely hypothesis which is from molecular data and the finding of different trends of turnover (Takahashi 95).
The idea that plastids are often permanent can be fully supported by various features of chloroplast in the D. acuminate (Gil 39). There have been studies on the species and of this it has become clear that plastids are usually modified in D. caudate, and this has become possible after the overall enslavement from Mesodinium. When focusing on M. rubrum there have been various sequestrations of different plastids which emerge from cryptophytes. Mesodinium has also been found to be larger when in other cryptophytes, but other major modifications among them the Dinophysis are yet to be discovered (Raho 839).
It is vital to note that pigments of photosynthetic are chemotaxonomic which are known to make phytoplankton because of their overall distribution in the taxa (Reguera 87). Tracing of different pigment types can be used to find the origin of tertiary and secondary plastids within the dinoflagellates. They also work together with other molecular and phenotypic traits. There have been different discussions about the nature of plastids which are found in the Dinophysis yet the composition which is found in the culture system has not been mentioned.
The pigment samples of HPLC were analyzed and performed in different field models which are from the Baltic Sea, here they are dominated with D. norvegica, and this have shown cryptophytes shaped signatures (Stoecker 279). The overall achievement of making the cultivation of Dinophysis in a system of culture where the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum is included, and this is after there was a possibility of starting a research on physiology and ecology. Based on the findings from the research there has been a description of other cultures in various photosynthetic Dinophysis.
The fist HPLC pigment data was provided by with different species of their prey which were the T. amphioxeia and the M rubrum. The interest of the research was to find out whether the composition of pigment was able to reveal different fingerprints which were a clear indication of plastid type in Mesodinium and Dinophysis (Gómez-Consarnau 84). The Dinophysis species were put in different region with different light intensities and a prey added periodically to the species. Cryptophytes and ciliate were put in separate region later in the course of the first week. The culture system was maintained for a period of one year before another experiment was put in check. The samples were later analyzed five days after they were put into the fresh medium (Nishitani 253).
This was done for purposes of ensuring that all the Dinophysis cultures were in a position to grow as required. To ensure healthy growth and free from contamination from Teleaulaz and Mesodinium, the cells of Dinophysis were rinsed severally with medium which was fresh immediately before the process of filtration and later inspected by light microscopy (Nishitani 254). Similar approach was performed for Mesodinium where a mesh was used for purposes of reducing the densities of Teleaulax. For the total number of cells in the experiment, Lugol’s samples were put in 1-Ml chambers and a different Neubauer hemocytometer inside an inverted microscope.
A different aliquot for the counts of cells was also used after rising the Mesodinium and the Dinophysis (Minnhagen 47). This is done immediately before the samples were filtered through the analysis of HPLC. The analysis was done for purposes of estimating the overall number of content per cell. This was also vital to it indicated the differences that were seen from the different samples.
Growth rates and doublings were calculated every day using the equation k = log2 (Nt/N0)/Δt and r = k × 0.6931. Procedures of extraction for filtration on the pigments were done and the pigments later identified through comparisons (Hackett 440). The comparisons were done through the retention time of chromatographic and spectral information. This was done against a convergence of carotenoids and chlorophylls which were from different phytoplankton cultures.
The HPLC pigments that were analyzed indicated Chl c2, Chl a, crocoxanthin, alloxanthin and carotene as the dominant pigments (Hallegraeff 25). The pigments were reported in the cryptophytes, and there was no detection of monadoxanthin which is a carotenoid which is found in different cryptophytes within the genera Chroomonas, Rhodomnonas and Cryptomonals. There was no pigment signature that could find a different kind of plastid in the Dinophysis, M rubrum and T. amphioxeia. There was light assaying in both the samples although Mesodinium and Dinophysis did indicate a different ration of pigment which were Chl a, specifically higher Chl c2, and this was after a comparison of T. amphioxeia. The Carotenoid ratios were not different from those in HL and LL conditions which were placed in all the organisms that were studied. This was done with ratios that were low in D. acuta and particular in the HL component.
Chl a per cell ratio was also calculated after the experiment, and this was done in different light conditions within the study organisms. There was, however, an exception of D. tripolis and Mesodinium in the HL. The resultant data indicated that Mesodinium in LL had sixty times more Chl a per cell compared to the Teleaulax. The cells in the Teleaulax had a plastid, but in the Mesodinium there were a 6-35 plastids which were seen as very few in number (Hansen 126). The overall estimations of Chl a per cell can be seen to be greater but this can only be measured in comparison to a single plastid on a level of comparison. There was an estimatin of 28.3 Chl a per cell per Mesodinium cell, and this was lower compared to previous estimates of 70 Chl a per cell. This was after ten days after an addition of cryptophytes. The Mesodinium strain on the other hand was large at 22-29 compared to that of the study which stood at 10.4-14.6 (Johnson 185).
The chlorophyll per cell was also found to be greater than anticipated if they both had similar amounts of pigments in the Teleaulax. In the LL the estimates were also observed and found to range from 144-222 folds higher compared to the Teleaulax. With increasing values which were seen in D. acuta towards D. tripos and D. caudate (Hansen 201). The overall increase in the Chl a per cell in the Dinophysis can easily be explained by the overall changes in size. The D. acuta is seen as being small and ranges from 50-95 while the D. caudate ranged from 70-110 and D. tripos which was 95-120. In the HL the Chl a per cell estimations in the Dinophysis were low at 59-70, and this was higher compared to those levels in the Teleaulax, where there was a decrease in Chl a per cell (Johnson 117). In the literature provided there were much literature that corresponded to the number of plastids in the Dinophysis. There was a report of two clusters of axial of stellate compound in D. acuminate. There were also 16-31 plastids in D. acaudata, and this was after the ingestion of Mesodinium, the number, however, increased as time after their feeding to the prey. There were no recorded numbers of estimates in the plastids in the Dinophysis, but if Chl a per cell in the Teleaulax were extrapolated 50-220 times higher in the Dinophysis there probably would have been an overestimation in the total number of plastids.
Even if there was an increase in the kleptoplastids than was in the first instance, and this includes various thylakoid and the elongation into stellate compounds there could be a little assistance when explaining the overall results at the end of the experiments. The idea of synthesizing new pigments in the experiments can be realized in the synthesis of new pigments in the Dinophysis. The ideology of synthesizing other pigments and making replications has been seen in the Mesodinium species and explained by the maintenance of a prey that is functional like the nucleii. Dinophysis on the other hand never harbours any kleptonucleus with a different form of mechanism which operates. Therefore the Dinophysis does contain nuclear-encoded genes which are meant for the plastids functioning, and they allow for a temporary regulation and control of the kleptoplstids (Maneiro 334).
The pigment ratios in the Chl an in the Mesodinium and the Dinophysis relative to the Teleaulax is often due to the physiological or photoacclimtion changes int eh kleptoplastids. The machinery in the molecular region which is in control of the T. amphioxeia plastids reside are never the same in their hosts. This is possible even when the two are not confirmed while in the experimental position. There are currently little studies that cover the issues of Dinophysis, although there are reports of plastid colors in the D. caudate when in maintenance in the LL. After a shift to the HL to LL the Kleptoplstids can retain the reddish original colour. This is due to some photo damage that is often seen in various experiments of such a nature. The changes can be as a result of a high degradation of the phycobiliproteins which are always relative to the Chl a. This usually turns from a reddish culture to a green culture which is towards the stationary phase.
In the study, the low Chl an in the HL compared to the LL species of D. acuta and D. caudate can be easily induced by photodamage or photoacclimatin which was shown in the mesodinium. It is also true to state that the kleptoplastids have the inability to replicate the available plastids in their common ground, where the fast-growing HL cells can dilute themselves the plastid contents compared to the LL ones (Minnhagen 46).
The effects of irradiance on accessory rations and the overall role of alloxanthin in the cryptophytes as harvesters of light have not been confirmed by researchers. Through few exceptions that are available it is vital to note that high the high levels of irradiance often promotes the increasing ratios of the alloxanthin which is attached to the Chl a. there is a photoprotective function which is often used as a lighting compound and overall decrease in the HL condition relative to the original Chl. The study was able to observe both conditions thereby making recommendations that regard the need for the culture systems to be changed more often (Nishitani 253).
The presence of another different plastid in the Mesodinium and the Dinophysis cannot be ruled out after the completion of the study. This is because there are often permanent plastids that are often related with the cryptophytes which yield similar results and pigment signatures of HPLC analyses (Stoecker 279).
The known selection of the retention of various types of cryptophytes plastids by the Dinophysis can be seen used for increasing the number of algal, although such additions have never been proved by research. Cross-feeding experiments of Mesodinium and Dinophysis feeding on the cryptophytes which has different composition of pigment should be studied to make a complete resolve of the research study. This will enable researchers to know if the turnover trends are similar or if there are changes in their selections and composition.
The acquisition of phototrophy is known widely and enlarged among the eurkaryotic gene of life and often involve the algal endosymbiosis or retention from the green nature of plants. All species which are known to acquire phototropy are vital elements in the diverse nature of different aquatic life. They assist in the overall planning when the need for change is eminent. However, there exist various differences within the scope of information that is found in the hosts and the algal taxa which involves the protists and the niches in the ecosystem. Various organisms that are known to carry out the overall practice of aquatic life are considered to be mixotrophs but they also depend on the photophy is different (Wisecaver 366).
There is evidence that excess numbers of carbon which are produced in the process have vital functions of having evolutionary innovations that are crucial to the ecological roles of the protists in the aquatic life. Acquired phototrophy usually occur together with foraminifera, radiolarian and the dinoflagellates, but is commonly vital among the first two. Acquired phototrophy in radiolarian and foraminifera is important to the contributions made towards silicate, strontium, and carbonate and carbon flux in oceans. The ciliates with algal kleptoplastids are known to be used in fresh waters where the ciliates which have green algal are commonly fresh waters. The phototropic ciliate myrionecta rubra is a major producer in the coastal ecosystems.
Knowledge of individuals concerning the acquired phototrophy often influences the dymanmic and biogeochemical cycles which are known to be rudimentary, therefore there is a need to perform beyond concepts that are traditional to progress on the issues of plants animals in the environment. This will help progress the understanding that is often left out when the two pigments are combined. Microbial ecology is the understanding and study of the plant and animal combination which often assist each other during different processes. This is an area of exploration where individuals can learn different things that pertain to the ideas of molecular and classical techniques in the field of research and understanding.
Acquisition of the phototrophy by means of maintenance of the algal is usually known to be common among different aquatic protists. Such protists with the acquired phototrophy are also mixotrophic and usually have a combination phototrophy and heterotrophy. Through the information from evolutionary biologist it has become clear that the overall recognition of algal endosymbiosis is a crucial mechanism which allows for the evolution of eukaryotic and a force of driving which is mandated to make a diverse direction towards the aquatic environment.
In conclusion, the study is is rich in information which can be used to learn various species and how different elements like light make them change. Despite the available information about the endosymbiosis which is the intracellular association between the non-photosynthetic and the eukaryote alga and the overall retention which can be termed as the retention of plastids, and other elements through the feeding of the available algal prey which are protists the nature of Dinophysis can be determined with ease. Acquired phototrophy is in the inside root of the much diversity and beauty that large aquatic life exists. They perform crucial function for most aquatic life in the oceans and other large water bodies. A clear example is the radiolarians which are the green ciliates which are often found at the heart of the aquatic life. The understanding of such dynamics is important as it forms the dynamics that are needed for the overall functioning of the ecosystem. This, however, needs to move beyond the ordinary tenets of the aquatic life in overall.
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