A research proposal on the long term impact of bullying on the LGBT (final paper)
A Research Proposal on The long Term Impact of Bullying
On the LGBT Community as TeenagersABSTRACT
Bullying in itself is not a new phenomenon with recent discussions on the sexual orientations being on the center stage; disagreements have been shown openly hence discrimination is certain to occur between those for and against bullying. Having been legalized, more people are coming into the open to disclose their sexual orientation. But even with this, more people fear to come openly out and at the center, adolescents happen to be the most affected, and of interest in bullying among these groups.
Thus, this paper seeks to identify the different spheres of bullying that the teens with different sexual orientations that is, Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) teens are exposed to. It goes on further to advance the findings on the impact of this bullying on these groups. The proposal will also seek to answer a fundamental question of whether this leads to PTSD and any other mental illnesses that affected persons could suffer in their adult life
1.1 Background of the Study
Sexual orientation is the sexual identity of a person about attraction towards a given gender. It can take the form of heterosexual attraction to persons of the opposite sex, homosexual attraction towards the same sex or gender, and bisexual- attraction to both sex and gender (Heck, Flentje & Cochran, 2011). Transgender, on the other hand, is the personal identity of a person to the opposite gender to that one is born with. This combination forms the lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) teens; they comprise a sexual minority with their sexual orientation that differ from the mainstream in the society (Heck, Flentje & Cochran, 2011).
These groups have often been exposed to bullying that is an unwanted aggressive behavior with intent to cause harm or distress towards those whose ideology defer from their standings(Agervold * & Mikkelsen, 2004). Most of the affected teens are those still in schools and as a consequence some are forced to drop out of schools, and on the same note, those who stay perform poorly, suffer from depression and anxiety (Agervold * & Mikkelsen, 2004). Therefore, this may make them most likely to engage in drug abuse and even in some extreme cases leads to victims committing suicide. Other than the immediate harmful effect, it also leads to long-term emotional or psychological effects. Hence, this leads to a reduction in the life expectancy of the individuals who are involved in this particular drama (Heck, Flentje & Cochran, 2011).
Post-traumatic stress disorder is the long term medical conditions that result from a terrifying experience in one’s life. It includes uncontrollable thought about an event, flashback, anxiety and nightmares (Heck, Flentje & Cochran, 2011). In most cases, this results from past trauma that one has been exposed to or has had their experience. LGBT individuals have often been subjected to victimization among their peers in the society (Mandap, Carrillo & Youmans, 2014). Thus, this paper seeks to assess the correlation between the bullying one is exposed as a youth and post-traumatic stress disorder and assess the type of bullying that has a significant impact on the same.
Research that has been carried out in the recent past has found out that about eighty-four percent of youth undergo bullying in school about being presumed as being lesbian, gay bisexual, or transgender (Mandap, Carrillo & Youmans, 2014).The research will be organized as follows; the second chapter will focus on the literature review discussing the theoretical framework, empirical evidence, and the operational model. The third chapter will indicate the research methodology, sampling and data collection procedure and techniques.
1.2 Statement of research problem
Although there are many psychological studies carried out concerning the influences on the development of teens of different kinds; most of the studies conducted, as will be seen in the empirical review, have been rather generalized in their coverage, thus not able to bring out specific interest topics. The study will thus focus on establishing the long-term association between bullying among LGBT teens and the frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder. Special interest will be put in understanding; the different spheres of bullying, how the different types impact them, whether they will or will not lead to PTSD or other mental disorders as an adult. 1.3 Research Objectives
1.3.1 General objective
The study will mainly aim to establish the relationship between bullying among LGBT teens and the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in the Melbourne city of Australia.
1.3.2 Specific Objective
To understand the relationship between PTSD and LGBT teens
To the different spheres of bullying and how the different types impact them
To determine whether bullying is capable of resulting in PTSD only or also other mental disorders as an adult. 1.4 Research Questions
What is the relationship between PTSD and LGBT teens?
What are the different spheres of bullying and how do the different types impact them?
Does bullying result in PTSD only or it can also result in other mental disorders to an adult?
Hypothesis 1: There is a relationship between PTSD and bullying among LGBT
Hypothesis 2: There is no relationship between PTSD and bullying among LGBT
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study will be of benefit of the various persons as indicated below:
Youth motivational speakers who will be able to understand how to interact and address issues related to LGBT teens. It will be of great importance since, LGBTs face situations be they verbal or non-verbal that need to be addressed to avoid PTSD problems.
Heads of institutions that enroll teenagers of diversified sexual orientations will be able to understand and appreciate the nature of all teens, thereby handling them in a manner that is ethical and respectable.
Trauma counselors, being a new trending profession, will find this study to be of great significance. Through the use of the findings of this study, they will be able to address issues of LGBT as a minority group. Usually, a minority group has special needs that, have not been met, thus likely to be solved by findings of new research studies like this one.
1.7 Scope of the study
The study will be conducted to establish the long-term impact of bullying on the LGBT, that is, to establish the relationship between bullying and LGBT living within the cities of Edmonton and Calgary, Alberta.PART TWO: REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE
2.0 Theoretical review
The psychology of teens and the various changes and challenges that characterize the stage can have a lifetime impact on the life of a teen. It is important that stressful situations facing teens are understood and handled carefully to enable smooth development of the child. The various theories that may be relevant in regards to teen psychological influences include the Cognitive-Development theory and the frustration-aggression hypothesis, although this study will particularly use the cognitive-development theory.
2.1.1 Cognitive Development Theory
The theory concentrates on scholarly development and advancement of thinking in more than four stages: sensorimotor, preparations, solid operations, and formal operations. The members in the two studies from the articles are part of Piaget’s formal-operational stages. Kids’ formal operations are normally eleven years and more established and in these youngsters can think sanely and deliberately about dynamic ideas and speculative occasions. From Moore et al. (2012) studies, the results obtained demonstrated that center school understudy’s parental conjugal status and self-reported evaluations influence life fulfillment that recommends that they may have the capacity to ponder certain life occasions and apply it agreeable to them in other life spaces. Then again, while culminating the capacity to think hypo deductively, youngsters make unsurprising mistakes in speculation in right on time youthfulness which Elkind’s termed juvenile egocentrism (Shaffer, 2009). In immature egocentrism, teenagers frequently build up the nonexistent crowd and/or hold an individual tale.
A nonexistent group of onlookers is the point at which the youngster feels that they are continually being taken a gander at or seen by companions and being judged or worried about their practices (Shaffer, 2009). The fanciful crowd may be increased by casualties of tormenting, whether the harassment is customary or digital. If the casualty feels like they are dependable “in front of an audience.” In light of the fact that they are over and again harassed, they may feel an absence of companion acknowledgment and could be an explanation behind expanded tension appeared in casualties. In Law et al.’ (2012) view, the two most normal types of digital irritation were forceful informing and remarking or posting humiliating photographs or recordings that could make a bigger nonexistent crowd for teenagers because more individuals have entry to view negative posts/messages on the web.
The individual scenario happens when young people hold a conviction that they are extraordinary such that things that transpire will not transpire, some of the time to the degree that they feel safe (Shaffer, 2009). Victims’ harassment could lead them to feel one of a kind and alone or that nobody can comprehend their torment so they may not look for help. The scholar Piaget may likewise say that power irregularity found in harassing can be because of distinctive subjective knowledge and comprehension. A harasser may excuse activities or practices uniquely in contrast to a casualty. Likewise, casualties may have distinctive hypothetic-deductive thinking, which means they tackle an issue contrastingly which could be the reason the domineering jerk utilizes tormenting as a strategy for strife determination or to show power.
The theory is related to the stress and harassments both emotional and physical the LGBT community in Melbourne City go through. As a minority group, there is need to establish the various influences on their wellbeing, so that society can learn how to accommodate this group of people.
2.2 Empirical review
By use of a populace based sample of people living in the Netherlands, Mol et al. (2005) found that PTSD manifestation scores were higher for respondents who experienced non-traumatic life occasions. For example, conjugal disunity, unending sickness, and unemployment were higher than for the individuals who experienced Criterion A1 occasions. Criterion A1 events are those upsetting events that are capable of resulting in the potential threat of death, sustaining of injury or threat to one’s reputation. According to Van Hooff et al. (2009), a solid relationship could be noted between certain nontraumatic occasions like relationship issues, premature delivery, and tormenting and PTSD among a group of Australian grown-ups.
In addition to this, Gold, Marx, Soler-Baillo, and Sloan (2005) found among college understudies that presentation to non-Criterion A1 occasions for example non-sudden demise/genuine ailment of a nearby individual, family and personal relationship issues, and nonlife-debilitating medicinal issues) was identified with more prominent PTSD manifestation seriousness and general pain contrasted with introduction with Criterion A1 occasions. Long et al. (2008) examined the relationship between accelerating occasions and PTSD while controlling for past injury history, which permitted them to figure out if the relationship between non-Criterion A1 occasions and PTSD may be disclosed by presentation to past Criterion A1 occasions. They found that non-Criterion A1 occasions were more probable than Criterion A1 occasions to be connected with PTSD and more noteworthy indication recurrence. On the other hand, the recurrence of PTSD manifestations was directed by the route in which measures were displayed to respondents. By first making exposure to non-criterion A1 events then to Criterion A1 actions, it could be seen that PTSD indicators were quite advanced.
Researchers have additionally contended that presentation to peaceful prejudice related occasions, which would not qualify as Criterion A1 occasions, may be traumatic because they can be experienced as a risk to one’s security and enthusiastic prosperity (Bryant-Davis and Ocampo, 2005; Helms, Nicolas, and Green, 2010; Loo et al., 2001; Waller, 2003). Thus, these occasions can create intellectual, passionate, and physiological changes, for example, trouble thinking or recollecting, trouble joining with others and substantial issues (Bryant-Davis and Ocampo, 2005). Borrowing from Root’s (1992) theory of insidious trauma, Brown (2003) declares that, as a result of their underestimated status, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people (LGBTs) likewise confront rehashed presentation to stretch, and thus, such introduction can uplift their helplessness to PTSD. Therefore, by disregarding the impacts of non-Criterion A1 occasions, scientists and clinicians may neglect undiscovered PTSD-like scatters. The likes of these occasions, particularly those originating from disgrace and bias, are prone to overrepresentation in sexual and racial/ethnic minority populaces (Meyer, Schwartz, and Frost, 2008).
2.3 Conceptual Framework
The section will assess the research variables derived from the literature to measure the existence of substantial relations between the independent variable and the dependent variable. It will focus on the determinant variables identified in the study that would be associated with bullying. The description of the research variables for this study are indicated in the following sections.
It is the outcome characteristic and in this case, it will be the LGB teens.
It denotes the variable that influences the outcome of the research. In this paper, the independent variable is bullying.
PART III: METHODOLOGY
The part will describe the specific strategies or procedures that will be used in data collection and analysis to answer the research question and objectives. It will focus on research design, target population, research instruments, data collection procedures and analysis criteria
The research will use statistics from Project Stride a large-scale epidemiological study to examine relationships between stress, identity, and mental health among LGBTs living in Edmonton and Calgary, Alberta. The research participants will be picked randomly from business establishments both small and big such as inns, convenient stores, and health centers, community groups, and unrestricted spaces like lake/river areas and parks. Outreach workers will visit close to 100 venues across different zip codes.
The selection of participants will be done in two steps; the first one will target a few potential participants of different ethnic so as to gauge the eligibility of the study. Quota sampling will then be done to obtain a representative sample with participants of various characteristics gender, sexual orientation, race and an age bracket of 13-20. The sampling will aim to obtain a final sample of 200 respondents.
In reference to Meyer et al. (2006), the Life Events Questionnaire can be said to be a semi-structured conversation planned by Project Stride to prompt facts about stressful events experienced throughout the lifespan, including recent life events, usually around 47-50. Here, the event will have to be that which is a major life event, in which daily troubles and chronic strain may not be considered major events. The participants will indicate whether they have experienced each one of the events in question, in this case, bullying. The events will be described based on two independent aspects to remove later category inconsistencies that normally occur due to the subjectivity of participants.
3.2 Data Analysis
Standard definitions of data obtained will be adopted to analyze PTSD replies. It will be done through the calculation of frequency approximations and standard errors for each characteristic group of the study like heterosexual teens and LGB teens. The researcher will also utilize modified logistic regression models to establish variances in the occurrence of PTSD by sexual orientation and other group identification traits like ethnicity. In regards to sexual orientation specifically, the logistic regression models enabled maintaining ethnicity, education, and unemployment status. Controlling will be done through calculation of odds ratios at 95% confidence intervals (C.I).
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